Consultant Information and Course Descriptions

 

All consultants teach or have taught AP or Pre-AP and are endorsed by the College Board. They include AP Exam Readers and AP award winners, and they serve as lead consultants for other regional and national AP Institutes. In addition, outstanding faculty from UALR and other institutions serve as guest faculty throughout the Institutes.
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June 17 – 20, 2014

 Bernie Phelan – (Retired) Barrington, Illinois
AP English Language – Teachers New to AP

Bernie Phelan is a retired teacher whose career spanned 40 years of active, high school teaching, thirty of them involving teaching AP English Language and Composition. He currently consults for individual school districts and with numerous programs within College Board. He is currently chair of the test development committee for SAT: Writing and has been a member of the committee since its inception in 2003. He is a long-time table leader and reader for the AP English Language and Composition exam, having read the exam since 1987. He conducts 1 and 2 day workshops during the school year in AP and Pre-AP. He has conducted over 80 four or five day AP Institute since 1997. From 2000-2004 he was an elected trustee of The College Board.

Course Description: This one-week institute will focus on the core areas for any AP English Language course: Rhetoric and Argument. Initially, we will explore and delineate rhetorical and argumentative theory, then apply these theories to short texts. As we transition to a full day on the subject of teaching the reading of non-fiction, we will apply theory to full essays, then unpack definitions of reading from AP multiple-choice questions as we work toward a methodology for teaching reading. By mid-week, we delve into writing, focusing at first on last year’s questions and samples, then on broader topics of writing process. Our discussion will segue into assignment design, assignment sequencing, and assessment issues. We will also attempt to tackle the issue of curriculum, to modify existing practice, and to show how we might do some parts of our course differently for the upcoming school year.

 

 Elizabeth Villarreal - New Braunfels High School, New Braunfels, Texas
AP English Language – Experienced AP Teachers

Elizabeth Villarreal has taught English for 20+ years. For the past sixteen years she has taught AP English Language and Composition at New Braunfels High School in New Braunfels, Texas. For the past nine years, she has served as an endorsed College Board consultant and as an Educational Testing Service Reader for the AP English Language and Composition Exam. She has presented at workshops and Pre-AP/AP Summer Institutes in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Pennsylvania and Maryland. Elizabeth also serves as an AP English Language and Composition Saturday Student Study Session presenter and teacher mentor for The National Math and Science Initiatives. In addition, she has been a presenter at the AP Annual Conference and at the AP Colloquium for Equity and Excellence. She is also an SAT Reader, Pearson essay scorer for the state exam, and a member of the NCTE. Elizabeth has also served on the Texas Education Agency End –of- Course Advisory Committees and STAAR™ Item Review Committees for reading and writing.

 

Course Description: This course will help prepare AP teachers to meet the rigorous standards of AP English Language and Composition. Instruction will focus on the core competencies to include best practices for rhetorical analysis, synthesis, argument, timed-writing workshops, and close reading strategies for non-fiction. In addition, participants will be guided through a simulated reading of the 2014 AP English composition essay questions. Instruction will also include review of the course description and ideas for developing and refining the course syllabus. The crux of the course will highlight strategies for improving test performance for the composition as well as the reading comprehension section of the exam. In this interactive institute, participants will leave with hands on activities, lessons, and units of study that align with AP curriculum and the college readiness initiatives of the state exams.

What to Bring: Participants should bring a paper or electronic copy of the course description located on AP Central and a few short pieces of non- fiction from their existing curriculum.

 

baker smRandy Baker -  Putnam City North HS, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

AP English Literature – Teachers  New to AP

Dr. Randy Baker, the lead instructor for AP English Literature and Composition class for new teachers, has been teaching English for the past thirty-eight years.  A Nationally Board Certified Instructor, Dr. Baker has taught Pre-AP and AP classes for the past twenty-three years and has been a national consultant for the College Board in Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, and Illinois.  He conducted a workshop for experienced AP teachers at the National College Board Convention in Seattle, Washington, in July 2008.

A Reader for the AP English Lit Exam for over twelve years, Baker is chairman of his English Department and has been his building Teacher of the Year in 1986 and 2000 at Putnam City North High School and the District Teacher of the Year also in 2000.  He was  named the recipient of the 2010 Oklahoma Medal for Excellence in Secondary Teaching.  He is a past member of the Oklahoma State Master Teacher Program and Past President of the Oklahoma Council of Teachers of English and received his doctoral degree in English Education at the University of Oklahoma.

In addition, he is also an adjunct at Oklahoma State University in Oklahoma City and St. Gregory’s University in Shawnee, OK.  The  Oklahoma Teachers of English recently honored Dr. Baker as a lifetime member for his service to his professional organization.

Dr. Baker’s Homework Assignment:  Each participant should bring 30 copies of a “best practice” lesson or unit to be presented on Wednesday and Thursday of the Institute

Course Description: The 2014 Summer AP English Literature and Composition Institute at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock will focus upon various elements of an AP English Literature course—the study of prose and poetic works. Beowulf, Chaucer, Hamlet, AP Comedy, teaching fiction and poetry, The Multiple Choice Question, the Eighteenth Century and Satire, the AP Research Paper, and a Simulated Reading of the 2014 AP Literature Examination are just a few of the units that will be presented and discussed.

Teachers will be introduced to some new and exciting strategies to teach fiction, drama, and poetry.  These strategies require higher order thinking and are designed to engage students and rejuvenate the high school curriculum.  Teachers should bring a best practices lesson and enough copies for 30 teachers and be prepared to present the lesson to other participants on Thursday.


PRATT-Mary-headshot-2013Mary McDonald, Enid High School, Enid, Oklahoma

AP English Literature – Experienced AP Teachers

Mary F. McDonald has taught AP English Literature and Composition and a variety of levels of 10-12 grade English at Enid High School in Oklahoma.  She has served as a member of the AP English Literature and Composition Test Development Committee and has worked with the AP English Literature exam for over eighteen years serving as Reader, Table Leader, Assistant Question Leader, and Assistant Chief Reader.  Ms. McDonald currently serves as a Nationally Certified College Board Consultant, and she is co-author of The College Board’s current Curriculum Module for AP English Literature: Developing Analytical Skills through Poetry. She received a B.A. in English from Phillips University, an M.A. in English from the University of Central Oklahoma, and trained for two summers as a Master Teacher with The National Institute on Teaching Shakespeare.

Course Description: During this course participants will examine various strategies in order to engage students in close reading, critical thinking, and persuasive writing.   A primary focus for the week will be targeting ways to enable students to connect literary devices to meaning in both prose and poetry.  Using Much Ado about Nothing as a reference, participants will explore strategies to engender student discussion as well as their “ownership” of Shakespeare’s language. (In addition, participants will compare the style and themes of this comedy with frequently taught Shakespeare tragedies, especially Othello).  Participants will also have the opportunity to explore techniques for improving student multiple choice scores, to share “Best Practices” with other experienced AP instructors, and to deconstruct the 2014 AP English literature exam.

Participants should read and bring a copy of Much Ado about Nothing (any edition); they are encouraged to bring copies of an effective AP lesson or teaching idea to share with the rest of the group.

Plan to read before the start of the course:

  • Much Ado about Nothing by William Shakespeare

What to Bring:

  • One copy of Much Ado about Nothing  (participants should read or re-read this play before they come to the institute)
  • A “Best Practice” lesson or AP level teaching strategy that has worked successfully for them to share with the entire group (please bring copies 30 to distribute to the group)
  • Highlighters
  • Sticky notes
  • Copy of current (or planned) AP course syllabus

What participants MAY WISH to bring:

  • a flash drive to save work

 

Teresa Tyra, Noble  High School, Noble, Oklahoma
Pre-AP High School English – Teachers New to Pre-AP

Teresa Tyra, a 27-year veteran educator, currently teaches English II and III at Noble High School in Noble, Oklahoma.  She has taught English to grades seven through eleven, college-level Composition I and II, Survival Reading for College, eighth grade and high school U.S. History, honors Oklahoma History and adult basic education/GED preparation. Ms. Tyra has been a College Board Pre-AP consultant since 2003 and has presented at several summer institutes and one- and two-day conferences. She is a mentor teacher-trainer for the University of Oklahoma College of Education and its K-20 Authentic Teaching and Authentic Learning grant program. She holds a B.S. in Education (language arts and social studies) and a Master’s in Liberal Studies from the University of Oklahoma.

Course Description: During this Pre-AP High School English institute, participants will learn practical applications aligned with the Common Core Standards for guiding learners to higher-level thinking. In addition to strategies to prepare students for AP courses, we will also discuss how Pre-AP strategies can be used in all classrooms for all students. Participants will have opportunity to share best practices, especially those implementing technology effectively. Mostly, we will discuss the power of language and how we can empower our students with language analysis in both their writing and reading.

 

me2Brook Bullock, Putnam City North High School, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Pre-AP High School English- Experienced Pre-AP Teachers

Brook Bullock has taught in Oklahoma for 20 years and presently teaches English III and AP Language at Putnam City North High School in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 2001 until 2011, he taught at Del City High School where, in addition to his starting the AP English Language program, Mr. Bullock was the Yearbook and Newspaper sponsor and taught Journalism. Previously, he taught on level and Pre-AP English I and II at  rural Blackwell High School, where he was a founding member of the school’s AP English Vertical Team.  Brook is a Reader for the AP Language Exam, has scored entries for National Board Certification, and has been a College Board consultant since 1997.  He has presented at numerous workshops, conferences, and Summer Institutes in the Southwest, Midwestern, Southern, and Western Regions of the College Board, including multiple invitations to the AP Annual Conference.

 Course Description: Designed for the English instructor seeking to learn or improve teaching strategies pertinent to Pre-AP students, this course will focus on AP concepts and skills developed during English I and II courses and beyond. Topics will utilize examples from fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama with an overall emphasis on rhetorical style and language analysis.  Presentation examples include:

  • modifying AP objective questions and essay prompts
  • introducing/applying syntax and rhetorical structure to student analysis
  • teaching tone and author’s purpose as reading and writing assignments
  • utilizing high-interest non-fiction selections
  • developing a Pre-AP course as part of a growing Vertical Team

Participants will leave the institute with lessons and strategies they can immediately incorporate into their curriculum.

What to Bring:

* Writing tools and note-taking resources (pens, pencils, highlighters, sticky-notes, etc)

* A list of required curricular pieces (novels, short stories, poetry, etc) for the courses

you teach and those in your vertical team

*Please bring one non-fiction selection that you like (or would like) to use in your class

 

 Jan Harris – Clear Brook High School, Friendswood, Texas
Pre-AP Middle School English- Teachers New to Pre-AP

Jan Harris has been in secondary education for twenty-one years, teaching in high schools and junior highs around the Houston area.  Jan holds a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and English from Stephen F. Austin State University and a Masters of Literature from the University of Houston, Clear Lake.  She has taught high school English for ten years, teaching ninth, tenth, and twelfth grades and teaching academic, honors, and Advanced Placement levels.  For the past eleven years, she has been teaching seventh and eighth grades, with a concentration in Pre-AP and Gifted and Talented levels.  At present, Jan teaches 7th grade Pre-AP and academic English in Crosby I.S.D.  Jan has worked for Lee College in Baytown, Texas, from 2000 to 2009, teaching freshman and sophomore English night courses and came on board with the College Board in 2000, as well.  She has participated in two-day seminars in Houston, San Antonio, Austin, and Norman, Oklahoma, in the last ten years, and participated with AP Summer Institutes at Southern Methodist University, Texas Christian University, the University of Texas at Austin, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Donna I.S.D., Lamar I.S.D., University of Texas at El Paso, Texas A&M University at Laredo, and the University of California at Riverside.  Jan also presents the English Vertical Teaming and Differentiation seminars for the College Board.

Course Description: Our week will be spent looking at all areas of English for the Pre-AP Classroom: Organization, Reading, Writing, and Poetry.  We will look at rigor and how to bring a Pre-AP classroom up to a rigorous level of reading and analyzing that our students need to not only be prepared for high school, but for the AP Exams and college also.

What to Bring:

  • Your favorite poem
  • Any questions you may have
  • Your Pre-AP Vertical Teams Guide will be provided

 Christian Cicoria – St Mary’s Hall, San Antonio, Texas
Pre-AP Middle School English – Experienced Pre-AP Teachers

Since 2001, Christian Cicorisa has taught at Saint Mary’s Hall in San Antonio, Texas. Prior to his arrival in San Antonio, Christian taught sophomores and juniors in Corpus Christi, Texas.  For the past nine years, he has led Pre-AP English sessions at one, two-day, and week long workshops in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Arkansas.  Additionally, he has worked with several school districts in Teas focusing on curriculum alignment, strategy-based instruction and vertical teams to increase classroom rigor while also equipping students for success.  For the past five years, he has served as an instructor for he Independent School Association of the Southwest’s annual Beginning Teacher Institute.

Course Description: This workshop will emphasize a variety of analytical, close reading strategies appropriate for middle school students with the goal of fostering greater student independence and proficiency with poetry, prose and non-fiction as well as preparing them to do more analtyical, more insightful, and more substantial inquiry in high school. Additionally, the course places considerable emphasis upon the reading-writing connection, asking students to read as writers and write as readers.

Learning Activities:

  •  bridging the fiction – non-fiction divide
  • exploring style, syntax, voice and word choice, through mimics of quality sentences and longer pieces of prose
  •  utilizing strategies that shift the “brain work” to the students to build confidence and independence with text and with writing 
  •  utilizing quality professional models as foundation for student writing, toward student adoption of “mature” elements in their own writing
  •  constructing quality, targeted rubrics for student writing 
  •  broadening the approach to syntax within the middle school classroom to help students refine voice and style in the context of their own writing
  •  integrating student-led literary and style discussions into the middle school classroom as a means of increasing both student understanding and higher level thinking, as well as assessing these skills 
  • equipping students with strategies to facilitate independent analysis of poetry and fiction, as well as pinning down that pesky tone 
  •  building and maintaining a working vertical team and examining how middle school Pre-AP aligns with the high school program and the exam

What to Bring:

  • one significant/major piece of prose that you teach in your classroom
  • sticky notes
  • highlighters

 

Bio-pic-for-APSIMarsha Gray-Scholze -(Retired)North Richland Hills, Texas

AP U.S. History – Teachers New to AP

Marsha Gray-Scholze has recently retired from teaching  AP United States History at Carroll Senior High School in Southlake, TX.  She has 30 years in education, including 13 in Advanced Placement.  Ms. Gray-Scholze has been an AP exam Reader for the last 11 years, five years serving as a Table Leader and is now an Exam Leader.  Ms. Gray is a nationally trained and certified consultant for the College Board and has worked with teachers across the United States.  She is a graduate of North Texas State University (BA) and Southern Methodist University (MLA).  She has been honored in Who’s Who Among American Teachers and spent a summer of study in India as a Fulbright-Hays scholar.

Course Description:  The AP United States History Institute for New Teachers will include:

  • How to structure an AP class.
  • How to fulfill the syllabus requirement.
  • How to pace instruction.
  • What works in the classroom?
  • What are the expectations for AP?
  • How to prepare students for writing the historical essay.
  • Preparing students for the revised APUSH exam in effect 2014-15 school year.
  • Hands-on activities with proven success records.
  • Content-specific lectures.
  • Lesson planning ideas.
  • And, valuable resources.

What to Bring:  Participants are encouraged to bring copies of “best practices” that they may share with the group.

 

 

Bruce Smith – Rio Ranch High School, Rio Rancho, New Mexico
AP U.S. History – Teachers New to AP

Bruce Smith graduated from Michigan State University majoring in History with a minor in Political Science. He began teaching for Peace Corps in 1989, in the rain forests of Papua New Guinea. He then taught ESL in Soule, South Korea. He arrived back in the States and received a Fellowship to attend the University of New Mexico and taught on the Navajo Reservation in Crownpoint, New Mexico. After five years, he taught six years at Jemez Valley High School, a pueblo reservation.  Currently he is teaching at Rio Rancho High School. After earning his MA at the University of New Mexico, he applied and received another Fellowship to earn a MA in English at Middlebury College. In 2005, he applied and earned the James Madison Memorial Fellowship. He earned his third MA in Liberal Arts at St. John’s College in Santa Fe. He has been teaching AP courses since 2001. He began consulting for College in 2004. He has taught AP English Language and currently teaches APUSH, AP Government and Politics, and AP Macro Economics. He has been a Reader for the APUSH national exam for seven years.

Course Description: This course will focus on preparing students to take the AP National Exam. The course for this APSI will focus on the revisions set in place by College Board and will be required for the 2014-2015 school year.

The revised course for APUSH will focus on three areas:

  1. Historical Thinking Skills
  2. Concept Outline
  3. Thematic Learning Objectives

There are seven Thematic Learning Objectives. The Concept Outline will be extended from pre-Columbian to the 1980s and present. There are nine Historical Thinking Skills. We will carefully examine all parts of the revised course and learn how to blend all three of these elements in your class.

We will look at the revised national exam.

Even though the course has been revised, it is still doable to teach the course with your existing text.

Other key items that we will cover will include:

  1. Writing valid assessments: open note quizzes.
  2. Scoring students timed essays. Teaching the new writing portion of the exam. Writing comments.
  3. Using primary source documents and implementing Historical Thinking Skills.
  4. Writing the new course syllabus.
  5. Writing complex thesis statements.
  6. Covering content with the revised Concept Outline.
  7. Using technology: web sites that are worth sharing.
  8. Sharing what works in your classroom and what did not.

What to Bring: Please bring a copy of the text book that you will use for the 2013-2014 school year. Bring a copy of your school calendar to write your syllabus.

The main objective is to emphasize reading, writing, and thinking for those students who take your course.

If you have any concerns or questions please contact me bruce@mrbrucesmith.com


 

  John Irish – Carroll Senior High School, Southlake, Texas
AP U.S. History – Experienced AP Teachers

John P. Irish teaches AP U.S. History, coaches UIL Social Studies, and is the UIL Academic Coordinator at Carroll Senior High School in Southlake, Texas. He is a nationally certified consultant in AP U.S. History and AP European History for the Southwestern Region of the College Board and serves as a Reader and Table Leader for the AP U.S. History Exam. He was a member of the College Board AP U.S. History Curriculum Development and Assessment Committee (CDAC) for the redesign, which oversaw the changes in the course curriculum and exam. He is currently a member of the College Board AP U.S. History Test Development Committee (TD), which is the group responsible for creating the new exam, overseeing continuing changes to the curriculum, and developing / presenting training for teachers across the country at state and national venues. He published the Student Guidebook for the 15/e of American Pageant and has published the Instructor Resource Guide and the Testbank for previous editions of that textbook. He was also on the writing team that published a four volume updated edition of the AP U.S. History Workbooks by the Center for Learning, along with a curriculum unit on Edward Bellamy’s novel “Looking Backward” also by the Center for Learning. Mr. Irish holds a B.A. in Political Science and Philosophy from Southern Methodist University and an M.A. in Philosophy from the University of Arkansas. He has also done post-graduate work in History from Rice University. He is currently working on a Masters Degree from Southern Methodist University with a concentration in Humanities and American Studies. He is a member of the American Historical Association, Society for History Education, and the Organization of American Historians.

Course Description: This course will cover both the content and pedagogy necessary for teaching the AP U.S. History course successfully.  This Summer  Institute  will be dedicated to the Course and Exam redesign,  which will be in effect the 2014-15 school year (with the first test administration in May 2015), as directed by the College Board. Focus of the course will be on the new time periods in AP U.S. History, analysis of the Historical Thinking Skills, and breaking down the requirements for the new redesign Exam. Presentations and discussions of teaching strategies will be divided equally between strategies for improving student success on the AP Exam and the content necessary to create an engaging and successful course. Teaching strategies will focus on the development of critical thinking skills, document analysis, and writing skills. Historical content will focus on American social, political, economic, and intellectual thought and we will explore the ever-changing interpretations of U.S. History (for a meaningful and on- going discussion of current historical literature, participants are encouraged to bring favorite books or articles to share).  Participants will also explore classroom resources, including online and multimedia resources. Participants are encouraged to bring successful lessons they have created and share these with the entire group.  This AP U.S. History Summer Institute will create an active learning environment, all participants will be expected to read, write, and actively engage with the material, please come prepared to participate.

 

IMG_4884Nancy Schick- (retired)Los Alamos High School, Los Alamos, New Mexico

AP U.S. History-Experienced AP Teachers

Nancy Schick is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Michigan State University and earned her master’s degree at the University of Pittsburgh. She taught for over thirty-five  years at public high schools in Pennsylvania, Maryland, California (where she was a math teacher), Virginia, and New Mexico, where she taught AP U.S. History and AP European History at Los Alamos High School. For many years she has been a College Board consultant and a reader, table leader, and exam leader at the annual AP U. S. History reading. Nancy served on the AP United States History Test Development Committee for four years. She has received fellowships from Stanford University, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, the U.S. Institute of Peace, and the Goethe Institute.  In 2003 she was a Fulbright-Hays scholar in Southeast Asia. She has been selected five times as a Presidential Scholar Distinguished Teacher and was the 2005 New Mexico Teacher of the Year. She has written several publications for teachers and is currently working on a U.S. history review and test-preparation guide for students. Nancy lives in Los Alamos with her husband, Mike. She travels as much as she can and in the next year plans to go to Spain, Iran, and Mongolia – where she looks forward to staying in a ger and riding a camel in the Gobi Desert.

Course Description: 2014 will be a very exciting year in the world of AP U.S. History. After many years of planning, the new Curriculum Framework will be implemented at the start of the 2014-2015 school year. Our focus for our summer institute at UALR will be to help experienced teachers make a smooth transition to the Framework. Our course, and the exam, will be much different. There is less focus on content for content’s sake, and teachers must emphasize the nine historical thinking skills, the seven themes, and the nine historical periods that are defined by the Framework and that will be tested on the May 2015 exam. We will examine the Framework in depth. Participants will work with many primary and secondary sources and will develop strategies to help students become better writers. We will compare the new exam to the old one and plan units that integrate the requirements of the Framework into lessons you have used in the past.

 205228_1013819658991_1030020226_30123161_9243_n-12Jaime Rollans – Mills University Studies High School, Little Rock, Arkansas

AP Art History

Jaime Rollans has been teaching AP Art  History for twenty-eight of her thirty-eight years of teaching.  Since 1994, She has been teaching at W.D. Mills University High School, where she teaches a history of philosophy in addition to AP Art History.  Jaime taught AP Art History, World History, AP European History and served as the Talented and Gifted Facilitator for North Pulaski High School in Jacksonville, Arkansas, from 1976 through 1994.  She is a consultant to the College Board in AP Art History and social studies.  She has served as a reader of the AP Art History exam.  She also served on the committee that wrote the College Board’s Advanced Placement Social Studies Vertical Team Guide.  She received her BA from the University of Central Arkansas and MA from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, where she has also pursued further graduate study in gifted and talented education. Growing up as a military “brat” and living for many years in England gave Jaime her love of history and art.  While teaching leaves little time for hobbies, she and her husband John spend their free time traveling and working on their “old” house, which they share with their cats.

Course Description:  AP Art History teachers will be engaged in an exploration of various methods used to meet the goals of the AP Art History curriculum and prepare students for success on the AP Art History Exam.  “Nuts and Bolts” topics that will be discussed include: a definition of AP Art History, developing a syllabus, resources, student recruitment, building support with parents and the school community, and pacing.  A close examination of the AP exam will include the grading of the exam, what students are expected to know and do on it, and review strategies.  Participants will examine and discuss instructional strategies for helping students develop the writing and higher order thinking skills necessary for success in an AP Art History class. Topics such as the teaching of context and form, document based questions, resources, incorporation of art from beyond the European tradition, and a review of the exam will be explored during the week.  This course will also provide a focus on the changes coming to AP Art History and exam in the 2015-2016 school year.

 


 Lisa Tobias -John Paul II Catholic High School, New Braunfels, Texas

Pre-AP Middle School Science

Lisa Tobias currentlyteaches Chemistry and AP Chemistry at Central Catholic High School in San Antonio, TX. Prior to that, she taught Pre-AP Physics, Pre-AP Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics 1 at John Paul II Catholic High School in New Braunfels, TX and Pre-AP eighth grade physical science and sixth grade robotics. She has been teaching science since 2000. Mrs. Tobias holds a BS in biology and history from Bates College and an MA in education from Barry University. She has been consulting for the College Board since 2007 in Pre-AP Science and inquiry-based laboratories, as well as science vertical teams and is currently a consultant mentor.

Course Description: The Pre-AP Science APSI is designed to take participants through each of the major components of a Pre-AP curriculum and then show participants how to incorporate the components into their own classrooms. The week opens by defining what Pre-AP Science is and how it can facilitate to a student’s future success in science. Specific ideas such as what language to use in general questioning, what basic skills to incorporate and when, as well as how to integrate both components into assessment will be looked at during these early days. As we move farther into the week, we will begin looking at the different types of inquiry-based classrooms and how a class can be inquiry-based and still move forward through the necessary material at a reasonable pace. Teachers will also learn how to present inquiry in a way that makes even open-ended inquiry approachable to students who are new to the process, saving time, frustration, and resources. In the last main component, we will assess different labs and evaluate how student vs teacher based (inquiry vs cookbook) they are. Once that is completed, we will begin to modify them in a constructive manner, making sure to incorporate other aspects of a successful Pre-AP classroom into the final products. If teachers bring their own labs, we will work on modifying their material and labs, rather than the stock labs provided. Throughout the whole week, we will be looking at and doing a variety of labs, activities, and projects that illustrate some aspect of the wide spectrum that makes up Pre-AP Science.

June 24-27, 2014

 

IMG_1258 Sheila McGrail,(Retired), Charlotte, North Carolina

AP Statistics

Sheila McGrail is retired from a 35 year career teaching all levels of mathematics in public and private secondary schools, including five years at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology (Alexandria, VA), one year at Phillips Exeter (New Hampshire) and most recently 21 years at Charlotte Country Day School (North Carolina).  She is a Woodrow Wilson Fellow [Mathematics and Human Decision Making].  She has served as an evaluator of The Mathematics Teacher for NCTM Advisory.  She is a Pre-AP Consultant for the College Board (Analyzing and Describing Data) since 2005.  She was a Co-founder and President of NCA^2PST [North Carolina Association of Advanced Placement Statistics Teachers].   For over twelve years, she has served as an Educational Testing Service Reader and Table Leader for the AP Statistics Exam.  She has lead student review sessions for Virginia Advanced Studies Strategies and the National Math and Science Initiatives.

Course Description: This institute is intended for teachers new to AP Statistics as well as those with experience teaching the course. Content will include the four main themes of the syllabus (Exploring Data, Sampling and
Experimentation, Anticipating Patterns, and Inference) as well as issues related to organizing and administering the course, such as student recruitment, pacing, book selection, and the AP audit. Wewill examine the exam, its preparation, and its grading. Resources for assessment, technology, projects and activities will be shared.

Course Objectives: Participants will:
1. Examine the structure of AP Statistics and investigate effective instructional strategies for teaching
the course.
2. Deepen their understanding of statistical concepts and methods in data analysis, study design,
probability, and statistical inference.
3. Utilize technology to promote statistical thinking; increase facility with using TI-calculators and
interpreting computer software outputs.
4. Explore a variety of ways to assess student learning that encourage understanding and effective
communication.

Before the start of the course: In order to get the most out of our time together, please do the following before you come to the firstclass meeting:
1. Go to apcentral.collegeboard.com and download a copy of the AP Statistics Course Description and read it.
2. Also from apcentral.collegeboard.com download the AP Statistics Teachers Guide and skim or read it.
3. Consider any questions that you would like to get answered during our week together. If possible, e-mail these to me at mcgrail@bellsouth.net ahead of time! Include in the e-mail information about your experience with using the statistics features of TI-83 or TI-84 calculators (little or no experience, some familiarity, considerable experience, or “I’m a TI whiz”!)
4. If you have taught the course before, I would appreciate your sending me an electronic copy of a “best practice” handout to share with your colleagues. This could be an any activity, project, review strategy, or handout you have found beneficial in your class.
What to bring:
A TI 83/84+ calculator and a flash drive with you (new or clean, please – we don’t want to spread a virus!) to save work.

 

 PattiHarroldPatti Harrold, Edmond Memorial High School, Edmond, Oklahoma

AP World History 

Patti Harroldis social studies department chair at Edmond Memorial High School in Edmond, Oklahoma, where she has taught AP World History, AP Art History, AP European History, and AP U.S. History. She is a National Board certified teacher and AP Reader for European History. Ms. Harrold has taught for 39 years and has been a College Board consultant for 22 years, presenting at more than 80 College Board and AP workshops and week-long institutes. She has written and edited many AP History publications and has recently worked with the Teaching American History grant program and served on a History Channel grant committee. She received the College Board’s Southwestern Region AP Special Recognition Award and the 2004 Secondary Teacher of the Year Award from the National Council for the Social Studies. Ms. Harrold holds a BA from Oklahoma City University and an MS from Lamar University.

If you have any questions before the APSI, feel free to contact Patti at whap1@att.net.

Course Description: Participants in this course will explore methodology and topical studies in AP World History. Guest lecturers will present topics in their field and a field trip will be scheduled.

Topics will include the following:

  • AP World History exam
  • Classroom strategies
  • Topical world history studies
  • Sharing of lessons and methods

What to Bring:

  • Textbook used in class
  • Flash drive or portable drive (at least 16 GB)
  • Flash-drive version of lesson or teaching strategy to share

 

 Eugene Chase – Edmond North High School, Edmond, Oklahoma

AP U.S. Government and Politics

Eugene Chase teaches U.S. and Comparative Government and Politics at Edmond North High School in Edmond, Oklahoma, where is also serves as social studies department chair.  A table leader at the AP U.S. Government reading, he has been consulting for the College Board since 1999 and has presented at AP and Pre-AP workshops nationwide and at the AP National Conference.  He is a National Board Certified Teacher (AYA Social Studies – History) and has also served as an assessor for the National Board.  Gene has been an AP Government advisor for two textbooks and has provided staff development to many school districts including Chicago Public Schools and Boston Public Schools.  Also working with the Education Testing Services, he has been an item writer for the U.S. and Comparative Government and Politics exams and has been assessor for the Praxis Series teacher licensure tests.  He holds a BA in political science from the University of Oklahoma and an MA in political science from the University of Central Oklahoma.  Continuing his relationship with UCO, Gene also serves as an adjunct faculty member in the College of Liberal Arts, teaching Social Studies Methods and American National Government.

Course Description:  In this course, participants will cover the six areas of AP U.S. Government and Politics and practice scoring the AP exam. AP U.S. History teachers transitioning to AP U.S. Government will have the opportunity to examine the different scoring method of the free response section on the exam.  New teachers will be given assistance in writing their syllabi.  The course will also cover test item design and construction,  and participants will be able to exchange ideas with their colleagues.  Of special interest will be the development of a “hybrid” course (partial online instruction).

What to Bring:

  • bring your favorite lessons
  • a 4GB flash drive

 

hastedtGlen Hastedt, James Madison University,  Harrisonburg, Virginia

AP Comparative Government

Glenn Hastedt holds a Ph D. in political science from Indiana University.  Formerly the chair of the political science department at James Madison University, he is now professor and chair of the justice studies department.  He is the author of American Foreign Policy:  Past, Present, Future, 10th edition (forthcoming Pearson, 2014), senior author of Pathways to Conflict and Cooperation (CQ Press, 2014) and editor of American Foreign Policy Annual Edition (McGraw Hill, 2013). He edited Controlling Intelligence (Frank Cass, 1991) and co-edited Intelligence Analysis and Assessment (Frank Cass, 1996).  Hastedt has also authored articles on in intelligence in Intelligence and National Security, Journal of Intelligence History, Defense Intelligence Journal, International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, The Journal of Intelligence History as well as chapters in edited volumes on intelligence.

Course Description: The purpose of this workshop is to help teachers develop and revise the AP Introduction to Comparative Politics course.  The workshop will consist of a combination of instruction and individual and group activities.  In addition to addressing concerns raised by participants at the workshop specific topics to be addressed include organizing the introductory sessions to the course, data analysis exercises, globalization, comparative public policy, democracy, sovereignty, and the use of history in a comparative politics course.  The workshop will also review past exams and discuss strategies for preparing students for the AP test.  Handouts  will be provided.

 

KoehnPhotoSemiProfDallas Koehn, Union Intermediate High School, Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

Pre-AP Middle School Social Studies – Teachers New to Pre-AP

Dallas Koehn has taught various Social Studies and History classes of all ability levels at Union Public Schools in Tulsa, OK, for 14 years.  He has been a consultant for the College Board for 10 of those years and has helped lead his department in implementing Pre-AP strategies at all levels (a work always “still in progress”).  Dallas has worked with both the State Social Studies and Fine Arts Conference and numerous school districts in Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas to throw as many starfish back in the ocean as possible – whether they wish to go or not. He is National Board Certified and is fairly tolerable after enough caffeine.

Course Description:   This week is loosely constructed around essential Social Studies skills like practicing inquiry, analyzing primary sources and visuals, reading effectively, and bringing it all together to write a reasonable argumentative thesis. (We might go really crazy and outline a basic essay if the spirit so moves.)  Our focus will be on practical, usable, classroom-ready ideas, both those aimed at effective content crunching and those designed to help shift the responsibility for learning onto our dear students. We’ll attempt to balance discussions of pedagogy and Pre-AP philosophy with a scattershot of actual activities, with more “doing” than mere listening on the part of participants.  In our Pollyanna fervor, we’ll explore the ways in which digging in a bit more deeply on some subjects, skills, and historical touchstones can help make the rest of what we want our little darlings to learn a bit “stickier” (so that while we care most about their long-term academic, professional, and personal success, maybe they’ll also remember enough content to pass a state test or two and not embarrass us with next year’s history teachers).  In short, we’ll try to do lots of usable stuff while collaborating over pretty much anything we can try to unlock the signs of life and smartness our little darlings work so hard to bury and deny.

What To Bring:

  • Please bring your best lesson plan or idea, in hopes we’ll have time to share
  • Your greatest challenge, insecurity, or weakness in the classroom (don’t worry—we’ll be gentle)
  • Something to write with and on for various activities

 Nancy Schaefer – Cabot Junior High South, Cabot, Arkansas

Pre-AP Middle School Social Studies  – Experienced Pre-AP Teachers

Nancy graduated from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock with B.A. and M.Ed. degrees.  She has 21 years of teaching experience, both in the private and public school arenas, and she currently teaches at Cabot Junior High South in Cabot, Arkansas.  Nancy is a College Board Consultant in the Southwestern Region, and she has presented at three AP National Conferences, as well as numerous AP Workshops and Summer Institutes in Arkansas, Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Illinois, and Florida.  In addition, she has developed curriculum for middle school social studies, and her instructional experience includes U.S. history, world history, world cultures, economics, Model United Nations, and English.  Nancy has membership in the National Council for Social Studies and the Arkansas Council for Social Studies, and she is a member of the Teacher Advisory Board on Economic Education at the Little Rock Branch of the Federal Reserve Bank.

Course Description:  Pre-AP Social Studies will assist teachers in developing lessons that will prepare students for the challenges of Advance Placement.  The course is for new, as well as experienced, teachers.  Participants will learn a variety of instructional strategies that will motivate students and foster the development of skills necessary for success in subsequent history classes in high school and in college.  Teachers will have numerous opportunities to engage in hands-on activities and to share ideas and lesson activities with each other.  Participants should come ready for an informative and intellectually stimulating week.

Topics for the workshop will include revolutions/wars, current events, presidents/world leaders, cultures/religions, Arkansas history, geography, and economics.  Additional workshop activities will include journal writing, strategies for critical thinking, class notes, document analysis, vocabulary building, generalizations, DBQs (document-based questions), research, student-directed discussions, close reading techniques, ladders of questions, essays and timed writings, AP-style assessments , interdisciplinary activities, and lessons that include the use of technology.

What to Bring: Bring one lesson or best teaching practice to share wit the other participants.

 

 

rowell-pic-13Judy Rowell (Retired) Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

Pre-AP High School Social Studies

 

Judy Rowell has taught grades 7 through 12 in her years with Union Public Schools over the past 30 years.  For the past 8 years she has led summer institutes in Oklahoma, Texas and Arkansas.  She has also spent the past 8 summers being trained at seminars presented by the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, the US Holocaust Museum and the National Endowment for the Humanities.  She is an Oklahoma A+ Schools Fellow, and an Oklahoma Energy and Resources Board Master Teacher.  Ms Rowell holds a BS of E from The University of Tulsa and has also attended the University of Wisconsin/Milwaukee, Langston University and Northeastern State University in Oklahoma.

Course description: This course will discuss vertical teaming strategies and how the middle school classroom fits within the scheme of an AP program.  We will focus on the development of skills to prepare students for success in AP courses.  We will explore techniques and best practices for teaching Pre AP social studies, and participants should return to their campuses with activities and ideas, which can be comfortably incorporated.

Topics will include the following:

This week will be spent exploring techniques and best practices for teaching Pre AP social studies.  Please bring your favorite lesson to share with the group.  Topics to be covered will vary and be as fluid as possible to suit the needs of the participants.

I believe in hands-on experiential learning, so please come prepared to participate. This will NOT be a week of sitting quietly, listening to me.

 

  Gloria Garza – Westlake High School, Austin, Texas
AP Spanish Language

Gloria Garza is a Texas educator of longstanding.  She holds degrees from the University of Texas Pan American (BA/1973, MA/1975) and the University of Texas at Austin (Ph.D. /1992) in Latin American Studies, Spanish, and Latin American & Brazilian Literature, respectively.  She was Instructor of Spanish and Portuguese at UT-Pan American from 1976-1983;  Assistant Instructor of Spanish and Portuguese at UT-Austin (1983-1990), and Lecturer in Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Brazilian Literature at UT-Austin from 1992-1994.  She teaches AP Spanish Language and AP Spanish Literature and French Language at Westlake High School, Austin, Texas.  She is the recipient of a number of academic and teaching awards, including Best Dissertation of the Year (UT-Austin/Spanish Portuguese Dept., 1992), Outstanding Educator Awards from UT-Austin,1998; Stanford University, 2009; University of Chicago, 2011; Golden Apple Teaching Award, WHS-1998; Fulbright Scholar, 1992  (Brazil), 1999 (Spain), 2000 (Spain).  She has been a College Board Consultant since 1998, and has served as AP Reader, Table Leader and Question Leader for over a decade and a half.  She is an enthusiastic, energetic and inspiring teacher.

Course Description: This year’s Advanced Placement Summer Institute will be divided into three parts.  One part will focus on a variety of effective language teaching strategies employed in an Advanced Placement Spanish language course; the other will be dedicated to methods related to teaching a number of cultural topics.  These topics may be related to science, technology, families, communities, aesthetics, personal and public identities and global challenges.  We will work in teams to develop cultural lessons that can be utilized by teachers in their classrooms. A third part will be a review of the format, content and assessment of the AP Spanish language exam.  Participants are asked to come prepared to be engaged in a hands-on-type of workshop.  The presenter will conduct the workshop entirely in Spanish; participants, however, should feel free to express themselves in either Spanish or English.

 

IMG_0501Rosann Batteiger (Retired) Austin, Texas

Pre-AP Spanish

Rosann Batteiger has taught Spanish levels I to IV for the past 25 years at James Bowie High School in Austin, Texas and taught English as a Second Language in Mexico City for ten years.  She has served as a College Board Consultant for the past fifteen years and has been a reader for AP essays and tapes for six years.  She has also presented workshops for the Texas Foreign Language Association, Southwest Conference on Language Teaching and Region XIII Educational Service Center and is a National Board Certified Teacher.  She is also a proud grandmother of five year old Alexander.

Course Description: The goal of this institute is for teachers to develop a curriculum and strategies plan for their lower level courses, so their students can begin developing the necessary skills to be successful in AP courses.  To help teachers develop a successful Pre-AP program we will cover the following topics:

-an overview of the AP exam, the scoring process and recent change

-resources available to establish and maintain an AP program

-information for developing a course syllabi using the six themes for the AP World Languages and Cultures Course

-strategies for establishing and maintaining an AP vertical and horizontal team

-methods and strategies for developing AP listening, speaking, reading and writing skills with the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal and presentational

-assessment strategies and rubrics

-strategies for working with a variety of learners

What to Bring:

-your current textbooks, text scope and sequence guide or online  link to their textbooks, if you want  (in the past, participants have found this helpful so they can begin planning their curriculum for the next school year)

-your laptop and a flash drive has been helpful at past institutes

-a project or activity idea to share with the other participants.  Participants can share their project or activity via online access, and do not need to bring copies of the project

-For a preview of activities, participants can access my website at http://srabatteiger.weebly.com/.  You can view my plan book on my home page to see current activities I am using for Spanish I, II & III and also the APSI teacher page which contains contributions from past APSI workshops

 Patricia Winnard – Heritage Hall School, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

AP Studio Art – Teachers  New to AP

Patricia has taught art for 40 years and Advanced Placement Studio Art for 24 years.  She is a Fulbright Scholar, National Board Certified teacher and a NAEA  Teacher of Distinction. Over her teaching career she has received the AP Outstanding Recognition Award, Teacher of the  Year, Finalist for Oklahoma State Teacher of the  Year, Oklahoma Art Teacher of the Year, Secondary Art Teacher of the Year, and Western Region Art teacher of the Year, and finalist for National Art Teacher of the Year.  She has done extensive brain research with renowned author and originator of the Multiple Intelligences, Howard Gardner, at Harvard University.  She has received over $66,000 in grant funding.

She is an AP Studio Art Reader and has conducted over 104 one, two-day and summer training institutes as a consultant for the College Board for the last 15 years. She was a guest lecturer at the 2008 and the 2012 AP National Conventions.  She also taught AP Studio Art in Beijing, China as an exchange professor with the Freeman Foundation in 2011.

Patricia is a published writer and illustrator for Christian children books. She is is currently an AP Studio Art teacher at Heritage Hall Upper School in Oklahoma City, where she began and has nurtured a thriving program for the last 11 years.  She is also a mentor for the Master Teaching Program for the Oklahoma State City Schools and Integris Health Network.  Last year she was selected to participate in the Robert Rauschenberg Project in Washington DC.  She was selected as one of the 2010 Cambridge University Who’s Who Among Executive and Professional Women in Teaching and Education.

While teaching teachers across the country I am often asked; How do you get students to perform at a level of excellence?  I always simply reply as Michelangelo did when sculpting his immense figures. . .  It is already there, I only help to bring it out.

Course Description:  An overview of Pre-AP and AP Studio Art will be examined and discussed. Strategies and tips for organization and implementation  of the studio course will follow.  Participants will engage in a series of new activities using a variety of methods according to their level of expertise.  This study will include both technological, photo-graphical and by-hand surface preparation processes.  A body of work could be in the form of a deconstructed journal, Trish’s Terrific 12, using strategies developed by the instructor or an independent study.  Participants will also be introduced to creative Imagery Exercises developed by the presenter to stimulate creative choice as well as the student’s voice through the art making experiences.  Tips from Trish on photographing and submitting images digitally will be discussed.  The issue of teaching students benchmarks for “quality” in art forms will be addressed with the use of reflective, summative and oral evaluation systems.  The Reading 2013 and scoring the portfolios will be reviewed and discussed, from the vantage point of a reader, through an overview of images.  AP Central and other instructional resources will also be discussed and shared.

What to Bring:  Suggested supply List for Participants:

  1. Apron
  2. Assortment of papers, paints, brushes, drawing mediums
  3. Rubber gloves
  4. Sketchbook
  5. Hardbound used book
  6. Photos
  7. Misc. collage supplies
  8. Small hardside box
  9. Digital cameras/USB connection cords
  10. CD’s
  11. Jump Drive
  12. Card reader
  13. Laptop computer
  14. Favorite websites and “best practices/lesson plan to share
  15. Any other “stuff” you want to bring!

Note:  I am going green this year.  I will provide participants with workshop materials on a CD only.


Harlow-photo-005_edited-2Jane Harlow (Retired) Bartlesville, Oklahoma

AP Studio Art - Experienced AP Teachers

Jane was chosen the Oklahoma Art Education Association “Art Educator of the Year Award for 2009.” She is a master teacher of 48 years. Jane is currently serving on the OAEA Board as the Secondary Division Chair.  She holds a Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education from Jacksonville State University. She graduated with a triple major in Art, Biology and Physical Education.  She served as an AP Arts Director for the O’Donnell Foundation and AP Strategies for 3 years in Dallas, TX. She was also named the “National Outstanding AP Studio Art teacher of the Year Award” in 1995. She is the Co-Author of the National Vertical team Guide for AP Studio Art, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Editions. She has been a College Board Consultant for APSA for 20 years and an APSA College Board Reader for 19 years. She established the first AP Studio Art classes at Broken Arrow High School and edited the district Art Curriculum Guide.  She is currently the Secondary Art Dept. Chair for Bartlesville High School. She has presented at both AP and Pre-AP SA Institutes since 1994 in Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arkansas, Kansas and Florida. She was the first APSA consultant to present workshops for the AP Experienced teachers in the Southwest region. She has  been awarded the “Apperson-Hearst   PTA Teacher of the Year Award,” “The Golden Apple Award,” was named  Stanford’s “Who’s Who Among American Educators,” the “National Person of the Year for American Educators,” was twice named “Who’s Who Among American Teachers” and was recognized in Washington, D.C., as “Special Speaker, National SA AP Poster Recognition.”

Course Description: This AP Studio Art course will focus on preparing students for the AP Studio Art Exam through a rigorous and challenging curriculum.  We will discuss ways to organize the class, ways to develop a challenging and successful curriculum, and ways to motivate the students to develop strong work ethics and master skills.  We will share lesson plans and ways to accomplish the AP goals through Vertical Teaming and Pre-AP curriculum.  We will discuss the Reading Process, the Digital Submission Process and the “New Changes” made in AP Studio Art. The class will enjoy an exciting “hands-on” activity. The participants will receive a CD full of Power point presentations, lesson plans, images of student work and much, much more.

The Studio Art for Experienced participants should bring art materials that will enable them to create a piece of art that could be submitted in ONE of the AP Studio Art portfolios……. such as the Drawing or 2-D Design or 3-D Design portfolio.  The emphasis is different in each of the three portfolios:

(1)  AP Drawing Portfolio…the emphasis is on mark-making and   the Elements of Design. The participants may draw, paint, collage, use printmaking, mixed media, computer tablets, etc.

(2)  AP 2D Design Portfolio… the emphasis is on DESIGN PRINCIPLES.  The participants may draw, paint, collage, use scanography, digital  photography, use mixed media, etc.

(3)  AP 3-D Design Portfolio…. The emphasis is on both the Design Principals for 3D and the Elements of Design.  The participants may create a 3D work of art using found objects, trash, clay, wood, metal, wire….. or unconventional materials.

The participants should bring a digital camera to use in their hands-on project and/or to photograph the work being produced during the week.

 Lisa Tobias -John Paul II Catholic High School, New Braunfels, Texas

Pre-AP Middle School Science

Lisa Tobias currentlyteaches Chemistry and AP Chemistry at Central Catholic High School in San Antonio, TX. Prior to that, she taught Pre-AP Physics, Pre-AP Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics 1 at John Paul II Catholic High School in New Braunfels, TX, and Pre-AP eighth grade physical science and sixth grade robotics. She has been teaching science since 2000. Mrs. Tobias holds a BS in biology and history from Bates College and an MA in education from Barry University. She has been consulting for the College Board since 2007 in Pre-AP Science and inquiry-based laboratories, as well as science vertical teams, and is currently a consultant mentor.

Course Description: The Pre-AP Science APSI is designed to take participants through each of the major components of a Pre-AP curriculum and then show participants how to incorporate the components into their own classrooms. The week opens by defining what Pre-AP Science is and how it can facilitate to a student’s future success in science. Specific ideas such as what language to use in general questioning, what basic skills to incorporate and when, as well as how to integrate both components into assessment will be looked at during these early days. As we move farther into the week, we will begin looking at the different types of inquiry-based classrooms and how a class can be inquiry-based and still move forward through the necessary material at a reasonable pace. Teachers will also learn how to present inquiry in a way that makes even open ended inquiry approachable to students who are new to the process, saving time, frustration, and resources. In the last main component, we will assess different labs and evaluate how student vs teacher based (inquiry vs cookbook) they are. Once that is completed, we will begin to modify them in a constructive manner, making sure to incorporate other aspects of a successful Pre-AP classroom into the final products. If teachers bring their own labs, we will work on modifying their material and labs, rather than the stock labs provided. Throughout the whole week, we will be looking at and doing a variety of labs, activities, and projects that illustrate some aspect of the wide spectrum that makes up Pre-AP Science.