Collection Development

The University of Arkansas at Little Rock, William H. Bowen/Pulaski County Law Library’s (the “Library”) Collection Development Policy (the “Policy”) describes the criteria used in building and maintaining the Library’s collection of legal materials in all formats. The Policy is designed to comply with ABA Standard §606, Collection, and AALS Bylaw §6-10, Library. In addition, the Policy reflects the research, curricular, and education needs of the Law School program, the Law School faculty members, staff, and students, and the Pulaski County Bar.

Goals

Assess the Library’s practices to determine where the Mission Statement’s objectives are being realized and to serve as a guide in selection decisions to promote compliance and consistency.

Assess the Library’s practices to ensure that current ABA Standards are followed and to comply with ABA Standard 606 (c) which states that “A Law Library shall formulate and periodically update a written plan for development of the collection.”

Provide a concise and clearly worded document for the Dean, faculty, students and members of the Bench and Bar explaining the Library’s practices and policies.

Policy Revision

This policy is an expression of the current needs of the Library. As the academic program grows and changes, and the number and formats of new legal information resources become available, the Library will periodically review and revise this policy to better meet the needs of the Library’s users.

Library Characteristics

Background

The UALR/Pulaski County Law Library is the only combined public academic and county law library in the United States. Funding revenues for each institution are different and are kept totally separate. The collection is integrated with library materials stamped according to ownership: University Law Library, Pulaski County Law Library, U.S. Government document depository and Arkansas State Depository. Catalog records on the online catalog, THEMIS, are also integrated, but also identify the ownership of each item.

Patrons

Primary patrons are UALR Law School faculty members and students and members of the Pulaski County Bench and Bar. Secondary patrons include alumni of the Bowen Law School, members of the university community and attorneys outside the county. The Library is open to the general public because it is a publicly supported institution and also participates in both the federal and state depository programs.

The Law School currently has a student body of approximately 440 students and has twenty-nine full-time teaching faculty members. Students may pursue law degrees while concurrently pursuing a Medical Doctor degree or a master’s degree in Business Administration, Public Administration, Public Health, or Public Service.

Mission Statement

The Mission of the UALR William H. Bowen School of Law/Pulaski County Law Library is threefold.

  • Participate fully in the educational mission of UALR Law School by educating students, supporting faculty research and teaching needs, and taking part in law school activities
  • Act as a key resource for the legal research needs of the Bench and Bar and the general public
  • Collect and maintain a comprehensive collection of Arkansas legal materials

Funding

The Library has three sources of funds: Arkansas State Legal Education Funds, Pulaski County Law Library Funds, and Foundation Funds. Insofar as is possible, state allocated funds are used to purchase academically oriented materials, and Pulaski County funds to purchase practitioner-oriented materials. However, maintaining the integrity of the collection as a whole overrides this policy. Foundation funds are used primarily for major purchases (paper or electronic) not covered by Arkansas State or Pulaski County funds.

Selection and Retention Considerations

Format Considerations

The Library selects materials in a variety of formats, including print, electronic, audio, DVD and microform. In response to the increasing demand by both faculty and students for electronic materials the Library purchases most serial titles in electronic format. However, print versions of some popular serial titles are purchased as well. The Library continues to purchase current monographs in print while providing access to older monographs electronically. The Library purchases some seldom-used materials in microform format if the material is not available online. The selection criteria include the following:

  • Format appropriate for subject matter
  • Ease of use and currency
  • Patron demand and potential use
  • Restrictions on use
  • Availability and price

General Selection Criteria

The following criteria are used in selecting all materials regardless of format:

  • Importance of the subject matter to the law school program
  • Relevance to faculty scholarship (the Library makes every effort to acquire materials needed by faculty members either through Interlibrary Loan or by purchasing the materials)
  • Extent to which the subject matter of the item may be covered by the existing collection, or may be complementary to materials already owned
  • Authoritativeness of publisher or producer
  • Author or editor of the publication is known for the quality of previously published work or has an established reputation in the field
  • Accuracy of the information and data
  • Appearance of title in important bibliographies, lists, and reviewing media
  • Current or permanent value
  • Price, including initial purchase price and maintenance costs and importance to the collection

Collection Level Guidelines

Collection levels, which are described below, are provided for each subject area based on the overall importance of the subject area to the mission of the Law School.

  • Minimum/Out of Scope: The Library does not actively collect but may have a few basic works, primarily received as gifts. Generally, reliance is on other libraries.
  • Basic: a collection that serves to introduce and define a subject area. It is not sufficiently intensive to support coursework in the subject area. Generally includes basic reference and explanatory works such as textbooks, general works, and a few periodicals.
  • Study or instructional support: A collection that is adequate to impart and maintain knowledge about a subject systematically and will support most law school classes which do not require a lengthy term paper. It includes a wide range of basic monographs, serials, and periodicals.
  • Teaching and Research Level: This collection includes the major publisher source materials required for independent research. Includes important reference works, a wide selection of specialized monographs, an extensive collection of serials and major indexing services in the field. Older material is retained for historical research.
  • Comprehensive Level: This collection endeavors, so far as is reasonably possible, to include all significant works. The aim in this collection is to be exhaustive. Arkansas legal materials will be collected at this level.

Monographs

Monographs are acquired primarily in print, though the Library also maintains microform and electronic collections of monographs. Besides the general criteria listed above, the following criteria are also considered when selecting monographs:

  • Circulation or usage of previous editions or similar titles
  • Publication by a university press or other reputable publisher

Recent electronic acquisitions include THE MAKING OF MODERN LAW collection which added over 21,000 Anglo-American monograph titles from the 18th and 19th centuries and THE LEGAL CLASSICS LIBRARY which added over 1,400 titles and which continues to grow. The Library maintains standing orders to the RECOMMENDED LAW BOOK’S SERIES and the LEGAL TREATISES AND DISSERTATIONS collections published in microfiche by the William S. Hein.

Faculty members are encouraged to request books and are consulted about possible purchases when appropriate. All faculty requests for monographs are automatically honored unless the cost or subject matter of the item is significantly beyond the scope of this Policy. Such requests must be approved by the Library Director.

Serials

Print serials are judiciously added to the collection because of the upkeep costs and the labor necessary to maintain currency. The Library collects at least one major serial set in either electronic or print format for each subject area with a collection level of three or higher. Some areas like labor, which are more heavily used, may have more than one title.

All faculty serial requests including requests for journals, supplemented monographs, and integrated resources must be approved by the Director.

Updating

The level of updating needed is determined based upon the following criteria:

  • The collection level assigned to the subject area – primary titles are kept current
  • Prior usage
  • Upkeep costs

Loose-leaf titles with costly annual updates may be repurchased at set intervals instead of being regularly updated. The Library relies on the recommendations of Kendall Svengalis as set out in THE LEGAL INFORMATION BUYER’S GUIDE AND REFERENCE MANUAL (Svengalis) when determining how often to update serials. Updating information is encoded in the order record. The binders are labeled “periodic update.” Many periodically updated titles are available from Westlaw and or LexisNexis.

Generally, treatises with high usage are routinely updated with pocket parts/supplements. Treatises used less frequently may be supplemented only every two or three years.
All serials specifically requested by faculty and/or checked out by faculty receive all supplementation.

Cancellations

In recent years the Library has cancelled selected print titles and purchased electronic equivalents. The Library also cancels titles that are determined to be of no further value to the collection. The Library continues to purchase Arkansas primary and secondary materials in print. The Library uses the following guidelines when considering whether to cancel a particular title:

  • Is the publication routed to faculty?
  • Is it of current or potential interest to faculty?
  • Is it important for curricular and student needs?
  • Is it available in electronic format?
  • Will attorneys have access to the title?

Package Plans

The Library enters into standing order agreements with selected vendors for materials that are collected on a continuous basis. The Library subscribes to the American Bar Association package plan containing monographs, serials, and newsletters and the American Association of Law Schools package plan containing directories, proceedings, and handbooks. Many AALS publications are also available on HeinOnline.

Superseded Materials and Weeding

The Library retains superseded editions of all sets. The Library retains superseded volumes of most sets, with the following exceptions: digests, form books, citators, and encyclopedias. Weeding is done on a title by title basis, based on the criteria set out in this Policy.

Missing Books/Replacements

Periodically, the Technical Services Librarian generates a report of missing items that have been searched for at least three times. The lists are routed to all of the Librarians who recommend whether to replace. The Director makes the final decision on whether to repurchase a lost item.

Duplicate Materials

The Library acquires some duplicate copies of materials based on use patterns and primary patron demand. Areas where duplicate copies of materials may be purchased include materials needed to support the first year curriculum and/or legal writing or research classes. The Library also provides multiple copies of Arkansas primary and secondary legal materials including loose-leaf titles published by the Arkansas Bar Association. These titles include form books and handbooks.

Duplicate subscriptions are maintained for numerous Restatements of the Law titles including contracts, the law governing lawyers, judgments, property, torts, trusts, and unfair competition.

Gifts

Gift items are added to the collection according to the parameters set out in this Policy with one exception. Gifts will be added to the collection even if the item added exceeds the Collection Level Guideline for the given subject area.

Public Terminals

The Library maintains three public use terminals. The two terminals located behind the reference desk are available to all patrons. One terminal located in a closed carrel is available only for attorney use. All state and federal primary materials, KeyCite and Shepards, and a wide variety of secondary materials are available on the public terminals.

Guidelines for Specific Materials

American Law Reports

One current print copy, including all series and federal is maintained. The ALR INDEX and WEST’S ALR DIGEST provide access.

Association Proceedings

Published proceedings and institutes are collected for selected organizations, usually at the request of faculty members. Proceedings are collected in subject areas designated at the teaching and research level.

  • American Society of International Law, PROCEEDINGS
  • Institute on Oil and Gas Law, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL INSTITUTE ON OIL AND GAS LAW
  • Institute on Planning, Zoning and Eminent Domain, PROCEEDINGS
  • New York University Institute of Federal Taxation, NYU REVIEW OF EMPLOYEE BENEFITS AND EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
  • New York University School of Law Center for Labor and Employment Law, PROCEEDINGS OF NYU ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON LABOR
  • Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Institute, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL INSTITUTE
  • University of Southern California. School of Law, MAJOR TAX PLANNING

Atlases

The Library collects atlases at Level 2, Basic. The Library’s atlas stand currently houses the following titles:

  • ATLAS OF THE WORLD’S RELIGIONS
  • CENSUS ATLAS OF THE U.S. CENSUS 2000 SPECIAL REPORTS
  • DESK REFERENCE ATLAS
  • BRANT’S AND KARA’S SEAS
  • ATLAS OF THE WORLD
  • DESK REFERENCE ATLAS
  • HAMMOND HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE WORLD
  • HANDY HOUSEHOLD ATLAS OF THE WORLD

The electronic atlas found at Nationalatlas.gov is cataloged through Themis.

DVDs and Audio Tapes

The Library collects fiction DVDs with a legal theme. This includes movies that have as a protagonist an attorney or a judge even though the film does not deal with a legal issue. Most movies in this collection are films or television series that showcase lawyers both at home and work or the legal system in general.

The Library mainly collects non-fiction DVDs and audio tapes in skills oriented areas such as witness preparation and preparing for trial. The intended audiences are attorneys preparing for practice and/ or law students taking a skills course. The Library also collects DVDs that deal with historical or topical subject areas of potential interest to both faculty and students. Areas of interest include such topics as the American Revolution or the history of slavery. Each year, the Library also receives a complete audio collection of the programs offered at the AALL annual meetings.

Form Books

The Library purchases mostly multi-jurisdictional and Arkansas form books. Unless otherwise recommended by Svengalis, all form books are updated. Multi-jurisdictional form books currently owned include the following:

  • AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE LEGAL FORMS
  • Rabkin and Johnson CURRENT LEGAL FORMS WITH TAX ANALYSIS
  • WARRENS FORMS OF AGREEMENT
  • AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE PLEADING AND PRACTICE FORMS
  • BENDER’S FEDERAL PRACTICE FORMS
  • FEDERAL PROCEDURAL FORMS
  • BENDER’S FORMS OF DISCOVERY
  • FLETCHER’S CORPORATION FORMS ANNOTATED
  • MUNICIPAL LEGAL FORMS
  • DEPOSITION, STRATEGY, AND FORMS

Law Reviews/Periodicals

The Library subscribes to HeinOnline LAW JOURNAL LIBRARY. The Library collects in print only the law reviews for the top ranked one hundred law schools and the Arkansas law reviews. The Library collects subject specific journals in subject areas identified at Collection Level 3 or above. The Library relies on journal ranking lists in determining which titles to add to the collection. Titles routed to faculty are maintained in print format, even if available electronically. Newsletters and current awareness titles are not generally selected unless the focus is Arkansas law.

Law Review/Periodical Indexes

All current indexes are in electronic format only, except CURRENT INDEX TO LEGAL PERIODICALS. Titles collected are:

  • HEINONLINE
  • INDEX TO LEGAL PERIODICALS AND BOOKS
  • LEGALTRAC
  • SMARTCLIP
  • CURRENT INDEX TO LEGAL PERIODICALS (print)

Legal Encyclopedias

The Library subscribes to one copy each of the two national legal encyclopedias: AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE 2ND and CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, both shelved in Reference. Superseded volumes are not retained for either title. The first editions of both titles are shelved in the basement.

Legislative History Materials

Federal Materials: The Library subscribes to LEXISNEXIS CONGRESSIONAL UNIVERSE. Legislative materials are also available in microfiche through the government depository system. The Library subscribes to the CIS indexes for legislative materials in print.

State Materials: The Library subscribes to HeinOnline’s SESSION LAW LIBRARY which contains the session laws of all 50 states from approximately 2004 forward. The Library holds a partial run of state session laws in microform. (Prior to 1992.) The Library retains all superseded state code volumes.

Newspapers/Magazines

The Library subscribes to a variety of local, national and legal newspapers and popular periodicals. The Library has the print index for the ARKANSAS DEMOCRAT GAZETTE for the period 1819-1993. Below is a representative listing of current newspapers and magazines.

Newspapers:

  • ARKANSAS BUSINESS
  • ARKANSAS DEMOCRAT-GAZETTE
  • CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION
  • DAILY RECORD
  • LEGAL TIMES
  • NATIONAL LAW JOURNAL
  • NEW YORK TIMES SUNDAY EDITION
  • WALL STREET JOURNAL
  • WASHINGTON POST NATIONAL WEEKLY EDITION

Magazines:

  • ATLANTIC
  • BUSINESS WEEK
  • CONSUMER REPORTS
  • FORBES
  • FRANK (CLINTON SCHOOL OF PUBLIC SERVICE)
  • NATION
  • NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
  • NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE
  • NEW YORKER
  • NEWSWEEK
  • PEOPLE
  • SMITHSONIAN

Restatements Of The Law and Model Codes

The Library maintains one subscription to all subjects of the Restatements of the Law. The Library also subscribes to the Hein Online AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTE LIBRARY. Copies of all previously published editions of the RESTATEMENTS OF THE LAW and RESTATEMENTS IN THE COURTS are retained in available. The Library maintains at least one copy of currently published tentative, proposed, and official drafts in all subject areas. One current subscription copy of all Model Codes is maintained in the collection.

Study Aids

The Library maintains standing orders to all editions of West’s HORNBOOK SERIES, BLACK LETTER SERIES, and NUTSHELL SERIES and Aspen’s EXAMPLES AND EXPLANATIONS SERIES. The Library also purchases all editions of the LexisNexis UNDERSTANDING SERIES. Three additional copies may be purchased to cover demand during finals. All editions of these titles are kept. The Library does not purchase casebooks or textbooks.

Practice materials

The Library collects practice materials to support the practicing Pulaski County Bar and for students enrolled in skills courses. Emphasis is placed on collecting Arkansas state practice materials. In addition to Arkansas form books and other practice manuals, the Library collects all Arkansas materials published by Lorman Publishing and National Business Institute, as part of their Continuing Legal Education Programs. Practice materials for other states are generally not purchased.

Pro Se Materials

The Library purchases all editions of selected titles published by Nolo Press and other publishers that produce books specifically written for pro se patrons. Current editions are housed behind the reference desk. The Library keeps only the latest two editions of a title. Prior editions are shelved in Treatises.

Primary Materials

Administrative Decisions: Federal and State

Federal administrative decisions are selected from the federal depository library program. THE FEDERAL DEPOSITORY LIBRARY MANUAL, APPENDIX A, SUGGESTED CORE COLLECTION-LAW LIBRARIES was consulted to ensure complete coverage. Except for a few titles, the print has ceased and been replaced by electronic access. The Library subscribes to HeinOnline UNITED STATES FEDERAL AGENCY LIBRARY and LLMC-DIGITAL, both of which provide electronic access to federal decisions. GPO Access: a service of the U.S Government Printing Office also provides electronic access to administrative decisions.

Attorney General Opinions

The Library holds Arkansas Attorney General Opinions in microform from 1877-1943 and from 1958 to the present. The Library hold print versions of these opinions from 1991 to the present. The Opinions are also available in electronic format beginning in 2000 on the Attorney General’s web site.

The Library holds print versions of the ATTORNEYS GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES OPINIONS for 1852-1870; and digests of the opinions from 1789-1981; OPINIONS OF THE ATTORNEYS GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES, ADVISING THE PRESIDENT AND HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS for 1873-1982; and OPINIONS OF THE OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE for 1977-1996. Federal attorney general opinions are available electronically from HeinOnline and LLMC, and beginning in 1992 on the United States Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel web site.

Codes: Federal and State

Federal: The Library currently receives the print U.S. STATUTES AT LARGE and the U.S. CODE as part of the Federal Depository Library Program. In addition, the Library subscribes to the two commercial codes: UNITED STATES CODE SERVICE and the UNITED STATES CODE ANNOTATED. The Library retains the superseded volumes of these sets. The Library maintains a subscription to the print copy of the UNITED STATES CODE AND CONGRESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE NEWS.
State: The Library maintains one subscription to each of the annotated state codes, plus multiple copies of the ARKANSAS CODE OF 1987 ANNOTATED and WEST’S ARKANSAS CODE ANNOTATED. Superseded codes are shelved in the basement. Pocket parts are discarded except for Arkansas Code Annotated which are bound and kept.

Constitutions

Constitutions are available in the annotated federal and state codes. Foreign constitutions are available in CONSTITUTIONS OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD (paper and electronic) and CONSTITUTIONS OF DEPENDENCIES AND TERRITORIES OF THE WORLD (paper and electronic).

Court Decisions: Federal and State

Federal: The Library receives both the slip opinions and the print UNITED STATE REPORTS as part of the Federal Depository Library Program. In addition, the Library holds both WEST’S SUPREME COURT REPORTER and the UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT REPORTS in print. The Library subscribes to one copy of the PREVIEW OF UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT CASES in print. THE UNITED STATES LAW WEEK is available electronically. THE U.S. SUPREME COURT RECORDS AND BRIEFS is available in microform from 1930 forward. The Library also holds LANDMARK BRIEFS AND ARGUMENTS OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 1793-1981.

The Library has FEDERAL CASES, both in print and microform. The Library currently subscribes to the FEDERAL REPORTER, the FEDERAL SUPPLEMENT, and the FEDERAL RULES DECISIONS. The MILITARY JUSTICE REPORTER, the BANKRUPTCY REPORTER; the FEDERAL CLAIMS REPORTER, and the VETERANS APPEALS REPORTER were canceled in 2009.

State: The Library subscribes to West’s regional reporters: Atlantic, North Eastern, North Western, Pacific, South Eastern, Southern and South Western Reporters. Pre-NRS volumes are available for most of the states, though there are gaps in coverage. Attorneys and members of the general public have access to federal and state cases via the public Westlaw terminals.

Digests

The Library maintains subscriptions to multiple print copies of the ARKANSAS DIGEST, one copy each of Tennessee and Texas digests, the FEDERAL PRACTICE DIGEST, and the SUPREME COURT DIGEST.

Citators

The Library maintains the South Western and Arkansas Shepard’s citations in print. Online Shepards and KeyCite are available on the public terminals for use by attorneys and members of the general public.

Municipal Codes

The Library relies on the Internet versions of city codes available on municode.com.

Regulations: Federal and State

The Library holds in print the FEDERAL REGISTER since 1983 and the CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR) since 1949. In addition, the Library has microfiche for the CFR for 1938-1996. The CFR and the FEDERAL REGISTER are available electronically from HeinOnline and via GPOAccess.gov. The Library subscribes to WEST’S CFR ANNUAL INDEX.

The Library subscribes to the CODE OF ARKANSAS RULES and the ARKANSAS REGISTER. In addition, the library receives, in print, all Arkansas agency rules and regulations available through the Arkansas State Depository Program.

Treaties and international agreements of the United States

The Library selects numerous publications from the State Department through the Federal Depository Library Program. Included are FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE U.S., treaties and digests. The Library subscribes to HeinOnline’s TREATIES AND INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS LIBRARY and provides access to the United Nations Treaty Collection (free). The Library has in microfilm the League of Nations and the UNITED NATIONS TREATY SERIES. These materials are also available on HeinOnline.

Guideline for Specific Collections

Rare Books

The Library does not actively collect rare books with one exception. The Library collects all Arkansas legal materials. The Library accepts rare books when part of a donation or a purchased collection such as the “Slavery Collection” from Hudson Books.

Reference

The Reference Collections is a collection of high-demand reference materials, both monographs and serials and contains encyclopedias, directories, dictionaries, and legal form books. Below is a partial list of items contained in the Reference Collection.

  • Dictionaries and thesauri: both legal and general
  • Books of quotations: both legal and general
  • Selected bibliographies: early English and other states’ legal publications
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA
  • WEST’S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN LAW
  • GALE’S THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION
  • Arkansas legal directories
  • Congressional and judicial directories
  • MARTINDALE HUBBELL LEGAL DIRECTORY
  • WHO’S WHO IN AMERICAN LAW

Reserve

The Library maintains a small, closed Reserve area which contains titles considered essential to support student course work and/or considered at high risk for theft. Titles include the RESTATEMENTS OF THE LAW and the UNIFORM LAWS ANNOTATED. One copy of the Arkansas codes, digest and treatises are also on Reserve. Current issues of law reviews are shelved in Reserve prior to binding. DVDs and audios are also shelved in Reserve. Newspapers and periodicals from the Leisure reading collection are retained in this area for a brief period before discarding.

Fiction Collection/Good Reads

The library collects works of fiction featuring the law and lawyers that are appropriate for an academic law library. The Good Reads collection is an eclectic assortment of recent fiction, history, biography and social commentary of interest to law faculty and students.

Analyzing the Collection

Assigned Subject Level Guidelines

Using the Library of Congress classification scheme, the Library identified selected subject areas of interest to the Law School community. Each subject area was annotated with classes taught at the Law School, individual faculty interest, and whether the subject area is tested on a bar exam. Ranks were assigned as follows: Arkansas legal materials – 5; subject areas supporting required course work, several electives or seminars, scholarly interest by a faculty member, and tested on the bar exam – 4; subject areas supporting several electives or seminars – 3; legal subject areas not supporting class work or scholarly interest – 2; non-legal subject areas not supporting class work – 1. Appendix A sets out the breakdown of the subject areas, annotations showing the course work corresponding to the subject area, and the ranking levels assigned.

Initial analysis

The Library will use OCLC’s WorldCat Collection Analysis to review the collection to determine if all subject areas of the collection meet or exceed the collection development guidelines set out in Appendix A. In those areas where the collection fails to meet the specified Guideline, the Library will work to bring the collection into compliance by identifying and purchasing appropriate materials.

Ongoing Analysis

In order to ensure that the Library’s collection continues to meet the needs of users, the Library will solicit feedback from users by a variety of means including surveying faculty members, students, and attorneys, reviewing usage statistics and Interlibrary Loan requests, and encouraging faculty members, students, and attorneys to request needed materials.