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Sequoyah Research Center


“The first unmistakable mention of Cudjo is in the Treaty of Payne’s Landing, May 9, 1832, in which the Seminole chiefs agreed to move west of the Mississippi River if satisfied by a report of a delegation to be sent to investigate the suitability of that country. In this document Cudjo, with Abraham, principal Negro of head chief Mikonopi, are referred to as the Seminole Indian’s “faithful interpreters, and $200 each out of the sum to be paid to the Seminole in the case of Removal, is provided in full remuneration for the improvements on the lands now cultivated by them.” “Cudjo, Interpreter, his X marks,” appears among the witnesses to the treaty just below Abraham’s similar signature.”

Source: “Negro Guides and Interpreters in the Early Stages of the Seminole War, Dec. 28, 1835-Mar 6, 1837,” Journal of Negro History

Updated 4.19.2010