Chickasaw Removal Chronicle, 1830-1838
Chickasaw Removal Chronicle, 1830-1838
Chickasaw Delegation.-A Delegation, consisting of several Chiefs and Warriors of the Chickasaw nation of Indians, passed up through the Big Prairie, on Monday last, under the direction of Col. Reynolds, U.S. Agent for that nation. We saw and conversed, yesterday, with Mr. Ireland, one of the gentlemen attached to the party, and learn from him, that the object of the Delegation is to explore and select a country west of Arkansas, for the future residence of their nation, which is to be guaranteed to them by the Government, in exchange for the country which they have recently ceded to the United States east of the Mississippi. The country which they have in view, and which they will explore first, is that lying between the Arkansas and Canadian, and west of the tract set apart for the Creeks.
We are also informed, by the same gentleman, that a delegation from the Choctaw nation will set out soon, for the purpose of exploring the country which they own west of our Territory, preparatory to making arrangements for the general removal of that nation from the country which they have recently ceded on the east side of the Mississippi. The route of that Delegation will lie through the southern part of the Territory, and we presume that most of the emigration from that nation will ascend Red river. We were in hopes that an arrangement might have been made with the Choctaws, for the accommodation of the Chickasaws within the country belonging to them, which is abundantly large for the accommodation of both nations. But we understand that a proposition to that effect was made by the Commissioners on the part of the U.S., at the Treaty ground, and rejected by the Choctaws. Such an arrangement would no doubt have tended to mutual advantage and security of both parties, as it is understood that the most friendly and amicable relations subsist between the two nations.
Arkansas Gazette, November 3, 1830
Col. Reynolds, U.S. Agent for the Chickasaw nation of Indians, who passed through the Territory in the early part of November last, with a Delegation from that nation, for the purpose of exploring and selecting a country, West of Arkansas, for the future permanent residence of the Chickasaws; and Maj. GAINES, a special Agent appointed for the purpose by the President, who likewise passed through our Territory in the latter part of the same month, with a Deputation of Choctaw Indians, for the purpose of exploring the lands belonging to that nation West of this Territory, preparatory to the general removal of that tribe West of the Mississippi, arrived here on Sunday evening last, from Red river, on their return home. The Indians composing their respective parties, with their pack-horses and baggage, arrived yesterday, and crossed the river last evening, and will proceed on their journey homeward this morning.
In a conversation which we have had with these gentlemen, we are gratified to learn, that, notwithstanding the inclemency of the winter, they have encountered fewer difficulties, on account of the weather, than could have reasonable been expected at this season of the year, on so long and laborious a journey. Fortunately for them, there has been but little rain in that western region during the winter, in consequence of which the water-courses were low and generally fordable, and they found a great abundance of buffaloe, and other game, on their route, for the plentiful subsistence of their parties.
The following brief outline of their route, taken from memory, will give a faint idea of the extent of that journey which they have performed.
Col. Reynolds proceeded with his party up the Arkansas as far as Cantonment Gibson, and from thence shaped his course to the south. Maj. Gaines went no farther up the Arkansas than the mouth of the Canadian, and proceeded up that river to its South Fork, where he fell in with Col. Reynolds' party. The two parties then united, and generally kept together, or in the neighborhood of each other, during the remainder of their journey. They then proceeded up the Canadian to the Cross Timbers, estimated to be about 200 miles west of the western boundary of this Territory. From this point they shaped their course southerly, until they reached the Fausse Washita; thence easterly, the two parties separating, (Col. Reynolds' passing through the interior, and Maj. Gaines' near the southern side, of the Choctaw country), and, after crossing Blue, Boggy, and other rivers of note, the names of which we do not recollect, united again near the mouth of the Kiamiche. From thence they proceeded through the remainder of the Choctaw country, a distance of about 40 miles, to our western boundary, and thence, via Washington, to this place.
We understand they have thoroughly explored the country embraced within the above limits, particularly that portion of it which lies nearest our Territory, and they represent it to be generally well wooded, and to contain a very large proportion of excellent farming land-amply sufficient to sustain a numerous and dense population. The water-courses generally head near the Canadian, and empty into Red river. Their bottoms are from half a mile to two miles wide,
not subject to inundation, and covered with a heavy growth of cane to their sources. The prairies through which they passed, are generally very fertile, and a large portion of the country abounds with lime-stone.
Both parties of the Indians, we understand, are highly pleased with the country which they have explored, and we entertain sanguine hopes that they will make such a report of it, on their return to their brethren, as will tend to promote the views of the Government in facilitating their removal west of the Mississippi.
Arkansas Gazette, February 9, 1831
To the Farmers, Graziers, and Salt Manufacturers,
We are indebted to the politeness of Lieut. Carter, of the U.S. Army, who recently passed through this place on his way to the southern counties, for copies of the following Order and Report, which we take much pleasure in laying before our readers. It will be seen, that Lt. C. has been ordered to the southern counties of this Territory, for the purpose of ascertaining the present and future resources of that section of our country, for furnishing the necessary rations of beef, pork, corn and salt, for the subsistence of the Indians who will shortly emigrate to the country assigned them on this side of the Mississippi; and it will likewise be seen, that his report is favorable to the present capability of the country for furnishing the provisions required, and at moderate prices.
Upwards of 400 Choctaws, we understand, have already emigrated, in detached parties, to their lands west of this Territory, and the emigration of from one to two thousand more is anticipated during the present year. In the course of next year and the year following, 18 or 20,000 more of the same nation will follow, and it is also expected that several thousands of the Chickasaws will emigrate during the same period.
All these Indians have to be supported by the Government for one year after their arrival at their new homes; and it gives up pleasure to find that the Government has wisely determined to give our citizens the preference in furnishing the provisions for their subsistence. The subsistence of such a vast number of Indians will give profitable employment to our farmers, by furnishing an excellent market for all the beef, pork, corn, &c. that they can raise, and at
prices that will afford them a better reward for their labor than the raising of cotton, at the present depressed prices of that article. As the season for planting is approaching, we would advise our farmers and planters to curtail their cotton crops and extend their fields of corn, with a view of benefiting by the new market for the latter article which will be offered by the emigrating Indians.
The route which the Choctaws and Chickasaws will travel, in emigrating to their new homes, is not yet, we believe, fully determined on; but it is quite probable that a large proportion of them will cross the Mississippi at Helena, and White river at the Mouth of Cache, and proceed on the Memphis Road in the direction of this place. Those who intend settling on the Arkansas, will diverge to the right in the Big Prairie, and proceed up the river, on the Military
Road; and those who intend settling in the neighborhood of Red River, will cross the Arkansas at or in the neighborhood of this place, and take the main road to the south, through Washington, &c., to their destination. It is probable, also, that some who intend settling in the Red river country, will cross the Mississippi near our southern boundary, and proceed west through the southern part of the Territory. A considerable number of the emigrants will likewise proceed up the Arkansas and Red rivers in steam-boats and other modes of water conveyance; but we have good reason to believe that by far the largest proportion of them will proceed by land by the different routs indicated above.
We have deemed it proper to give the above sketch of the different routes which the Indians will be likely to travel in emigrating through our Territory, for the purpose of apprising our citizens of the market which may be expected for almost every description of provisions which they can raise. They must necessarily scatter large sums of money through our Territory in procuring the means of subsistence on their journey, and we hope our citizens will look well to their interest in providing themselves with a sufficient surplus of provisions to meet the demands of the emigrants. The receipts from those sources will prove a very seasonable relief to those who complain of the "hard times" and scarcity of money.
Arkansas Gazette, February 23, 1831
Capt. Clark, of the Commissary Department of the U.S. Army, returned to this place, a few days ago, from Fort Smith, where he has been employed, for a few weeks past, in superintending the repairs of the public store-houses at that place, for the reception of the provisions to be collected at that point for the subsistence of the emigrating Indians.
We understand, from Capt. Clark, that he has been advised by the Secretary of War, that Col. Reynolds and Maj. Gaines, (who superintended the two exploring parties of Chickasaw and Chocktaw Indians which visited the country west of Arkansas, last winter), have reported in favor of ferrying the emigrating Indians across the Mississippi, at Helena, and transporting them by land from thence to their several points of destination. This route, we believe, had not been decided on by the Secretary of War; but there can be little doubt, that the recommendation of those gentlemen will have great weight with him. If it be selected, as we have no doubt, it will, those who intend settling on the Arkansas, will proceed direct to the west from the Big Prairie; and those destined for Red river, will cross the Arkansas at or near this place, and proceed to the south, via Washington. The emigration will commence as early as September or October next; and as several thousands may be expected, we hope our citizens who reside on the routes they may travel, will be prepared to furnish them with such provisions as they may stand in need of, for which they will receive the ready cash. They will afford a ready and excellent market for every kind of produce that our citizens may have to dispose of.
Arkansas Gazette, May 25, 1831
We learn, by gentlemen from Crawford county, that the U.S. Surveyors, who have been for some time past employed in surveying the Public Lands in Crawford and Washington counties, have recently received an order from the Surveyor General, to suspend surveying any lands lying west of Brown's line, which runs a north course from the Arkansas river to the southern boundary of the State of Missouri.-The construction which the people have put upon this order is, that the Government intend offering the county lying west of that line-being a strip of land near 80 miles long by about 21 miles wide-to the Cherokee Indians east of the Mississippi, on condition that they will remove to the west. As may well be supposed, this order has produced considerable excitement among the people in the western part of the Territory; and a report brought last week, by a Mr. Ryter, of the Old Cherokee Nation, who passed up on the Elk, will not b e calculated to lessen the apprehensions of our citizens. Mr. Ryter informed us, that he had recently seen a letter from the President, addressed to some leading persons in the Old Cherokee Nation, offering to give the Cherokees the counties of Washington and Crawford, on condition that they would remove en masse west of the Mississippi. Our informant appears to be a respectable man, and we have no reason to doubt his having seen a letter from the President which he believes contains the offer alluded to; but we cannot divest ourselves of the belief that there is some misapprehension about the matter.
We have no doubt the President is anxious to remove all the Indians to the west side of the Mississippi, and that he will use every legal means in his power to effect that desirable object; but, as he does not possess the power of ceding the lands in any "ORGANIZED TERRITORY" to the Indians, and as the country alluded to above is within the organized limits of Arkansas, we do not believe he has offered it to the Cherokees. Our authority for the assertion that he does not possess this power, will be found in the 1st section of the act, entitled "An act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the States and Territories, and for their removal west of the river Mississippi," approved 28th May, 1828, and is as follows:
"Be it enacted, &c., That it shall and may be lawful for the President of the United States to cause so much of any territory belonging to the United States, west of the river Mississippi, not included in any STATE OR ORGANIZED TERRITORY, and to which the Indian title has been extinguished, as he may judge necessary, to be divided into a suitable number of districts, for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside, and remove there; and to cause each of said districts to be so described by natural or artificial marks, as to be easily distinguished from every other."
This ought to quiet the fears of our citizens, but if more is wanted, it will be found in the assurance given by the President and Secretary of War, to Mr. Sevier, in Dec. 1830. It will be recollected, that, in the autumn of 1830, a report was circulated, that the Chickasaws had been offered some of our western counties, in exchange for their lands east of the Mississippi. We expressed our disbelief in the rumor, at the time, and cited the foregoing act as evidence that there could be no foundation for it; and, shortly after Mr. Sevier arrived at Washington, in the following winter, he made it his business to call on the President and Secretary of War, for the express purpose of ascertaining from them what the intentions of Government were in relation to the disposition of her lands in Arkansas. The result of this interview will be found in the following extract of a letter from him, dated 17th Dec. 1830, which was published in the Gazette of the 19th Jan. 1831:
"I called, yesterday, upon the President and Secretary of War, and from them had the happiness to learn, that our predictions about the purport of the late Indian treaties, were well founded. The Choctaws get no other country west of the Mississippi than they previously owned, and the Chickasaws are to select a country south of 36 degrees north latitude, and west of the Choctaws. Upon intimating to the Secretary of War, that a rumor was afloat in Arkansas that the Chickasaw Indians were authorized to select any country west of the Mississippi river, without regard to our Territorial boundaries-the Secretary replied, that he regretted any of our citizens should have given themselves any uneasiness upon that subject-that the government had assured me that the limits of Arkansas should not be disturbed, and that, even if they had been inclined to disturb or mutilate our Territory, the act of Congress passed at the last session would have prevented them from so doing. You may rest assured that, whatever arrangements the government, in its wisdom, may take in regard to that class of our fellow-beings, no portion of Arkansas will be granted to them. This you may consider as a point settled."
We do not know what stronger assurances our citizens can wish, than those given by the President to Mr. Sevier, as detailed in the foregoing letter, that it is not the intention of the Government to disturb "the limits of Arkansas," by the cession of any of her lands to the Indians. It is natural that the rumors to which we have alluded, should awaken some uneasiness in the minds of those who reside in the western counties, but a reference to the law which we have recited above and the foregoing extract from Mr. Sevier's letter, will, we think, remove their doubts, and assure them of their safety. We have again and again expressed our belief, that there is not even a remote probability of any portion of our Territory ever being ceded to the Indians; and we again repeat, that we believe the President feels too lively an interest in the growth and prosperity of the West, and of the advancement of Arkansas to the rank which she must shortly assume as one of the States of the Confederacy, to sanction for one moment an act of such gross injustice and oppression.
Arkansas Gazette, March 21, 1832
Whose arrival at this vicinity, under the superintendence of Maj. F. W. Armstrong, we noticed in our last paper, after being organized into three detachments of about 600 each, for the purpose of facilitating their removal, left here, last week, for their country on Red river, in the following order:
A detachment of Koonches, under the Principal Chief Ne-ti-ca-che, left on Wednesday, in charge of Lieut. Montgomery, U.S.A.;
Another, of Six Town Indians, in charge of Lieut. Van Horne, U.S.A., left on Thursday; and
Another, of the Chickasaw-haas, Col. Nail, leader, left on Friday, in charge
of Lieut. Simonton, U.S.A.
All the foregoing Indians are from Ne-ti-ca-che's district, in the south-western part of the Old Cherokee [sic] Nation east of the Mississippi. There had been considerable sickness among them, previous to reaching this place, and 19 had died since leaving Rock Roe; but the survivors of those who had been ill had mostly become convalescent, and the general health of the several parties very much improved, previous to leaving here for the south.
Capt. Page, U.S.A., with about 1200 Indians and 80 wagons, of Col. Rector's party, who came through the Mississippi swamp from Memphis, and who design locating in the vicinity of the Arkansas, are probably now within about 75 miles of Fort Smith.
We understand it is expected that all the Choctaws who design emigrating this year, will be in their new country by Christmas.
Maj. Armstrong left here on Sunday last, for Fort Smith, for the purpose of distributing the annuity goods which the Choctaws are entitled to under the treaty.
Arkansas Gazette, December 5, 1832
Emigrating Indians.-By a gentleman from Memphis, we learn, that about 1500 emigrating Choctaws crossed the Mississippi, at that place, on Thursday last, on their journey to the west.
A Deputation of Chickasaws, with their Agent, Col. Reynolds, crossed the Mississippi, on the same day, on their way to select a country west of Arkansas, for the future residence of that nation.
Arkansas Gazette, November 6, 1833
A delegation of Chickasaws, under the charge of their Agent, Col. Reynolds, arrived in this vicinity, on Saturday last, on their way to explore the country west of Arkansas, for the future residence of their people.
Arkansas Gazette, November 13, 1833
It is high time, we think, that some other arrangement be made, to insure a more regular receipt of the mail from Memphis. There is defalcation and mismanagement somewhere in the present one. If a body of Indians, (men, women and children), with some 200 ponies, can pass through the Mississippi swamp in the course of two or three days, (which has been the case within the last two or three weeks), we can see no good reason why the mail cannot be carried through with regularity. But so it is-travelers daily pass through; and yet the mails cannot, because the swamps are impassable! The fact is, there is a lack of energy and perseverance on the part of those now engaged in carrying this mail, otherwise it would be more regular. The late contractor was discharged, in consequence of failing to perform his duty-but we do not perceive that his successor has mended the matter. The mail is just as irregular now as it was before his discharge. A new change, we imagine, will have to be made, before the public will be benefited. The route, we know, is a difficult one to perform; but, with ample compensation, (and no prudent man would undertake it unless well paid for his labor and risk), every obstacle can be surmounted, if energy and good management be used.
There have been so many failures of this mail latterly, that we do not know how many are due. They, however, we believe, amount to six or eight-enough, we hope, to authorize the Postmaster at Memphis to freight a steam-boat around with them.
One arrived on Saturday last, but brought nothing later than we received by that of the Monday previous. None arrived yesterday.
Arkansas Gazette, March 3, 1835
A Delegation of Chickasaw Indians, consisting of Martin Colbert, Pitman Colbert, Thomas Colbert, James Perry, and Immumby, Chiefs and Headmen of that nation, passed through this city, on Wednesday last, on their return from an exploring tour in the Choctaw country west of Arkansas, in search of a country for the future residence of their tribe. In a short conversation we had with one of them, we understood him to say that they have failed to obtain permission from the Choctaws to establish their permanent homes in the country belonging to that nation. The conductor of the Delegation was Mr. John K. Balch, of Tennessee.
Arkansas Gazette, December 29, 1835
It would appear, by the annexed extract from the Texas Telegraph, that the people of that province are not particularly in favor of having more Indian neighbors:
"Those tribes are the same which have been removed to the 'far west' by the government of the United States. We noticed, in a conspicuous paper, and which has always advocated the cause of Texas, that in speaking of the Seminole war, and its consequent disasters, it said it clearly pointed out the necessity of removing the Indians west of the Mississippi. If the Indians east of that river are sufficiently formidable to hold the citizens in dread, in a country, too abundantly furnished with every means of defence, the citizens of Texas and the western states of Mexico surely have reason to apprehend hostilities from al the Indian tribes which have, from time to time, been sent on to their borders, unless the government of the United States take precautionary measures for keeping them in check. This they are in duty bound by the treaty to do, as well as to protect its own citizen on the frontiers, and which, we consider, the only and primary object of the military movements under the direction of General Gaines on the eastern borders of this country."
Arkansas Gazette, November 22, 1836
Chickasaw Indians.–A party of 516 emigrating Chickasaw Indians, reached the bank of the Arkansas river, opposite this place, yesterday afternoon, on their way to their new homes west–all in excellent health. In the train are 551 Indian ponies and 13 wagins, and we understand there are 30 more of the same tribe behind, who are not enrolled, and who are expected to join the main party at this place. The officers in charge of this party are
J. M. Millard, Conducitng Agent.
Wm. R. Guy, Asst do.
Capt. Jos. A. Phillips, U.S.A., Disbursing Agent.
Dr. Keenan, Physician.
Arkansas Gazette, July 25, 1837
The emigrating Chickasaws.-About 200 of the Chickasaw emigrants, whose arrival we announced in our last paper, left here on the s.b. Indian, on Thursday, bound up the river. The remainder of the party, having refused to go on the steam-boat, have mostly left or are preparing to leave, by land, with their ponies, for their destination west-some by the route on the north side of the Arkansas, and the remainder crossing the river at this place, and proceeding south to Red river, and from thence west.
In our notice, last week, of the gentlemen connected with the emigration of the Chickasaws, we accidentally omitted the name of Mr. D. Vanderslick, who is one of the Assistant Conducting Agents, and through whose exertions the principal part of the party who have reached here, we understand, were enrolled and organized for emigration. He had been here a week or two previous to the arrival of the party, making arrangements for their subsistence, &c.; and, having accomplished that duty, left here, in company with Capt. J.A. Phillips, U.S.A., on Friday last, for the purpose of collecting and organizing, in the old nation, another party, for emigration during the ensuing autumn.
Arkansas Gazette, August 1, 1837
Chickasaw removal.-The party of Chickasaw Indians, who embarked from this place, on the 27th ult., on board s.b. Indian, arrived at the place of their destination on the 3d inst., under the charge of Mr. J. M. MILLARD, Conducting Agent, and Lieut. G. Morris, U.S.A., Disbursing Officer. These gentlemen, after having delivered the Indians to their proper agents, at Fort Coffee, returned by land, accompanied by Mr. D. McCurtain, Public Interpreter, and arrived here on Wednesday last, 9th inst., and set out on the following day to overtake the party of Chickasaws who went south, via Red river, to the Choctaw country. We understand they will proceed with that party for the purpose of furnishing their supplies, and preventing delay on their route, or trespassing on the citizens. We understand the party which they delivered at Fort Coffee were highly pleased with the country, and were in good health and fine spirits.
Arkansas Gazette, August 15, 1837
It is said that the Chickasaw Indians are to be removed, during the present fall, from near Pontotoc, Mississippi, to Fort Coffee, on the Arkansas river; and that they will be taken from Memphis, up the Arkansas, by water.
Arkansas Gazette, October 10, 1837
Chickasaw Indians.-The s.b. DeKalb, Lemmon, arrived at this place on Wednesday night last, from Memphis, and passed up on the following morning , without about 500 emigrating Chickasaws on board.
Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1837
Another party of Chickasaws.-The steamer Kentuckian arrived last night with a party of emigrating Chickasaws, amounting to near 800 in number. We understand that Mr. VANDERSLICK, of Kentucky, is superintending their removal.
P.S.-Tuesday morning, 7 o'clock.-The steamer John Nelson has just arrived, having on board another large party of Indians.
Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1837
A late Mobile paper asserts, that not more than 25 Creek Indians were drowned from the steam-boat Monmouth.
Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1837
THE EMIGRATING INDIANS
The vast and prodigious efforts made by the general government to rid the interior of our Union of the presence of its Indian tribes, have made our State for the present, nothing but a thoroughfare, a theatre, for the march of these tribes to their new homes in the west.-At this moment we have the Creeks and Chickasaws passing through the country-and it will be but a short period before the fierce and over-mastered Seminoles are to be added to the stormy elements in our vicinity. While the government continues to transplant these crushed spirits to our border, it must awaken in the bosoms of our rulers at Washington, a never-ceasing vigilance to defend us from aggression. From Mr. Poinsett's comprehensive views as a public man, we have every thing to hope. We shall look to his expose to the President at the opening of Congress, with a more than common interest. It is very manifest that the military force must be increased at our forts. His plan of the public defense, will, in other respects, doubtless be on a scale equal to the emergency.
Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1837
Extract of a letter to the editor, dated St. Francis, Dec. 11, 1837.
"Capt. John Millard, conductor of a party of Chickasaw Indians, reached Strong's last evening, with almost 300 Indians, 38 wagons, and 1100 Indian ponies.-The balance of his party, supposed to be from 700 to 800 in number, is still in the swamp, and will not reach here for some days owing to the desperate condition of the road. Capt. Millard thinks that not less than 70 or 80 Indian ponies have been bogged and left dead in the mud.
"This party will remain at this place for several days-indeed until the balance of the party comes up."
The whole party of Indians, we understand, will come by the way of this place-or rather, the opposite bank of the river.
A party of several hundred Chickasaws, with a large number of ponies, have been lying for some days opposite this place. 200 or 300 of them left, on Sunday night, on the s.b. Cavalier, the balance go by land.
Arkansas Gazette, December 19, 1837
Chickasaw Emigrants.-A party of near 200 of this tribe, who have been loitering along the roads on this side of the Mississippi, for some months past, arrived in this vicinity, last week, and were inclined to cross the river and proceed to their country west, via Red River. Near half of them crossed over, but as provisions had only been provided for the emigrants on the route on the north side of the Arkansas, and none on the south side, the principal part of them were induced, by Capt. Collins and Mr. Millard to re-cross, and proceed with the balance of the party on the former route. The latter gentleman had just returned from the west, on his way to the Chickasaw country east; but finding these stragglers here, with no one to conduct them, he determined to retrace his steps, and accompany them to their lands. For the last two or three days, he has been diligently engaged in procuring wagons for the transportation of their baggage, &c., and will probably have them in marching order to-day or to-morrow.
The remainder of the party who crossed the river, could not be persuaded to return, and will proceed to their destination via the southern route, on which they will subsist themselves.
Arkansas Gazette, May 30, 1838
Chickasaws.-A party of emigrating Chickasaw Indians, under the direction of Col. Upshaw, arrived here on Sunday last, on their way to the west. They number about 130.
Arkansas Gazette, July 18, 1838
Chickasaw Emigrants.-A party of about 300 Chickasaw Indians, with their baggage, wagons, ponies, cattle, &c., in charge of Col. Upshaw, Conducting Agent, has been crossing the river at this place, since Sunday morning, and will probably be ready to resume their journey to their country high up on Red river, to-day or to-morrow. The party appear to enjoy good health, and look cheerful and happy.
This is the last party of Chickasaws who are to be removed. The whole nation, consisting of about 3000 souls, have been collected together in the old nation, and transferred to their new homes west, under the superintendence of Col. Upshaw, in the space of about thirteen months.
Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1838