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Sequoyah Research Center

Choctaw Removal Chronicle, 1830-1849

Choctaw Removal Chronicle, 1830-1849 


Chickasaw Delegation.-A Delegation, consisting of several Chiefs and Warriors of the Chickasaw nation of Indians, passed up through the Big Prairie, on Monday last, under the direction of Col. Reynolds, U.S. Agent for that nation. We saw and conversed, yesterday, with Mr. Ireland, one of the gentlemen attached to the party, and learn from him, that the object of the Delegation is to explore and select a country west of Arkansas, for the future residence of their nation, which is to be guaranteed to them by the Government, in exchange for the country which they have recently ceded to the United States east of the Mississippi. The country which they have in view, and which they will explore first, is that lying between the Arkansas and Canadian, and west of the tract set apart for the Creeks.

We are also informed, by the same gentleman, that a delegation from the Choctaw nation will set out soon, for the purpose of exploring the country which they own west of our Territory, preparatory to making arrangements for the general removal of that nation from the country which they have recently ceded on the east side of the Mississippi. The route of that Delegation will lie through the southern part of the Territory, and we presume that most of the emigration from that nation will ascend Red river. We were in hopes that an arrangement might have been made with the Choctaws, for the accommodation of the Chickasaws within the country belonging to them, which is abundantly large for the accommodation of both nations. But we understand that a proposition to that effect was made by the Commissioners on the part of the U.S., at the Treaty ground, and rejected by the Choctaws. Such an arrangement would no doubt have tended to mutual advantage and security of both parties, as it is understood that the most friendly and amicable relations subsist between the two nations.

Arkansas Gazette, November 3, 1830


A Delegation from the Choctaw Nation east of the Mississippi, passed up through the Big Prairie, last week, for the purpose of exploring the lands belonging to that Nation west of this Territory. They were under the direction of Maj. Gaines, (formerly U.S. Factor in the Old Choctaw Nation), who accompanies them as the Agent of the Government, and who visited this place, last week, for the purpose of procuring such supplies as the Delegation stand in need of to enable them to prosecute their long and arduous journey.

Maj. Gaines was present when the late treaty was concluded with the Choctaws and we understand from him, that no intimation was given them that land would be given to them within the limits of this Territory, and that they do not expect any addition to the vast country which they now own beyond our western boundary, and which the present Delegation are about to explore, preparatory to a general removal of their people from the lands which they have recently ceded to the U.S. on the east side of the Mississippi.

Arkansas Gazette, November 24, 1830


Removal of the Choctaws.-We learn, by a gentleman from Hempstead county, that the Choctaw Indians have commenced emigrating from the country which they have recently ceded east of the Mississippi, to their lands on our western frontier. Several hundred have already came over, and arrangements are making for immediately putting a Missionary School into operation in their new country. A considerable portion of the nation may be expected over in the course of the ensuing Spring, and the removal of the obstructions in the navigation of Red river, occasioned by the raft, (which work is progressing very favorably, will facilitate their emigration, and greatly reduce the expense to the Government of removing them to their new homes.

Arkansas Gazette, December 29, 1830




Col. Reynolds, U.S. Agent for the Chickasaw nation of Indians, who passed through the Territory in the early part of November last, with a Delegation from that nation, for the purpose of exploring and selecting a country, West of Arkansas, for the future permanent residence of the Chickasaws; and Maj. GAINES, a special Agent appointed for the purpose by the President, who likewise passed through our Territory in the latter part of the same month, with a Deputation of Choctaw Indians, for the purpose of exploring the lands belonging to that nation West of this Territory, preparatory to the general removal of that tribe West of the Mississippi, arrived here on Sunday evening last, from Red river, on their return home. The Indians composing their respective parties, with their pack-horses and baggage, arrived yesterday, and crossed the river last evening, and will proceed on their journey homeward this morning.

In a conversation which we have had with these gentlemen, we are gratified to learn, that, notwithstanding the inclemency of the winter, they have encountered fewer difficulties, on account of the weather, than could have reasonable been expected at this season of the year, on so long and laborious a journey. Fortunately for them, there has been but little rain in that western region during the winter, in consequence of which the water-courses were low and generally fordable, and they found a great abundance of buffaloe, and other game, on their route, for the plentiful subsistence of their parties.

The following brief outline of their route, taken from memory, will give a faint idea of the extent of that journey which they have performed.

Col. Reynolds proceeded with his party up the Arkansas as far as Cantonment Gibson, and from thence shaped his course to the south. Maj. Gaines went no farther up the Arkansas than the mouth of the Canadian, and proceeded up that river to its South Fork, where he fell in with Col. Reynolds' party. The two parties then united, and generally kept together, or in the neighborhood of each other, during the remainder of their journey. They then proceeded up the Canadian to the Cross Timbers, estimated to be about 200 miles west of the western boundary of this Territory. From this point they shaped their course southerly, until they reached the Fausse Washita; thence easterly, the two parties separating, (Col. Reynolds'
passing through the interior, and Maj. Gaines' near the southern side, of the Choctaw country), and, after crossing Blue, Boggy, and other rivers of note, the names of which we do not recollect, united again near the mouth of the Kiamiche. From thence they proceeded through the remainder of the Choctaw country, a distance of about 40 miles, to our western boundary, and thence, via Washington, to this place.

We understand they have thoroughly explored the country embraced within the above limits, particularly that portion of it which lies nearest our Territory, and they represent it to be generally well wooded, and to contain a very large proportion of excellent farming land-amply sufficient to sustain a numerous and dense population. The water-courses generally head near the Canadian, and empty into Red river. Their bottoms are from half a mile to two miles wide, not subject to inundation, and covered with a heavy growth of cane to their sources. The prairies through which they passed, are generally very fertile, and a large portion of the country abounds with lime-stone.

Both parties of the Indians, we understand, are highly pleased with the country which they have explored, and we entertain sanguine hopes that they will make such a report of it, on their return to their brethren, as will tend to promote the views of the Government in facilitating their removal west of the Mississippi.

Arkansas Gazette, February 9, 1831


Natchez, Jan. 19

The Choctaws.-Almost every day furnishes some new proof of the anxiety of this people to make their departure for their new home beyond the Mississippi. A gentleman of veracity and intelligence, who has just returned from a tour through the greater part of the South-western district of their nation, informs us that he had seen and conversed with the principal men of the nation, who assured him that the Indians were quite anxious that the treaty should be ratified in good faith. About fifteen hundred had already gone to their new country on the Red river, and these among the most industrious and intelligent of the tribe; many more were ready to set out, but had not the means of travelling. All were desirous of a free communication between them and the whites, in order to afford them an opportunity of disposing of their hogs, cattle and other property. Laflore, the principal chief, and a man of the greatest influence among the Choctaws, is desirous that Government should furnish him with a steam-boat this spring, to transport from 1,500 to 2,000 of his countrymen to a point on the Washita, within three days' land journey to a point in their new country, where they intend to make a permanent location. Corn meal and pork is the provisions they wish for.

This gentleman has also conversed with the principal men who had been sent to explore the new country.-Their report is very favorable as to soil and climate; the country abounds in game, lime stone, stone coal, and excellent water. They brought with them the horns and tails of the buffaloes they had killed; and say they would not have returned for the property they left behind; but only for their wives and children.

Arkansas Gazette, February 16, 1831



To the Farmers, Graziers, and Salt Manufacturers, of Arkansas.

We are indebted to the politeness of Lieut. Carter, of the U.S. Army, who recently passed through this place on his way to the southern counties, for copies of the following Order and Report, which we take much pleasure in laying before our readers. It will be seen, that Lt. C. has been ordered to the southern counties of this Territory, for the purpose of ascertaining the present and future resources of that section of our country, for furnishing the necessary rations of beef, pork, corn and salt, for the subsistence of the Indians who will shortly emigrate to the country assigned them on this side of the Mississippi; and it will likewise be seen, that his report is favorable to the present capability of the country for furnishing the provisions required, and at moderate prices.

Upwards of 400 Choctaws, we understand, have already emigrated, in detached parties, to their lands west of this Territory, and the emigration of from one to two thousand more is anticipated during the present year. In the course of next year and the year following, 18 or 20,000 more of the same nation will follow, and it is also expected that several thousands of the Chickasaws will emigrate during the same period.

All these Indians have to be supported by the Government for one year after their arrival at their new homes; and it gives up pleasure to find that the Government has wisely determined to give our citizens the preference in furnishing the provisions for their subsistence. The subsistence of such a vast number of Indians will give profitable employment to our farmers, by furnishing an excellent market for all the beef, pork, corn, &c. that they can raise, and at prices that will afford them a better reward for their labor than the raising of cotton, at the present depressed prices of that article. As the season for planting is approaching, we would advise our farmers and planters to curtail their cotton crops and extend their fields of corn, with a view of benefiting by the new market for the latter article which will be offered by the emigrating Indians.

The route which the Choctaws and Chickasaws will travel, in emigrating to their new homes, is not yet, we believe, fully determined on; but it is quite probable that a large proportion of them will cross the Mississippi at Helena, and White river at the Mouth of Cache, and proceed on the Memphis Road in the direction of this place. Those who intend settling on the Arkansas, will diverge to the right in the Big Prairie, and proceed up the river, on the Military Road; and those who intend settling in the neighborhood of Red River, will cross the Arkansas at or in the neighborhood of this place, and take the main road to the south, through Washington, &c., to their destination. It is probable, also, that some who intend settling in the Red river country, will cross the Mississippi near our southern boundary, and proceed west through the southern part of the Territory. A considerable number of the emigrants will likewise proceed up the Arkansas and Red rivers in steam-boats and other modes of water conveyance; but we have good reason to believe that by far the largest proportion of them will proceed by land by the different routs indicated above.

We have deemed it proper to give the above sketch of the different routes which the Indians will be likely to travel in emigrating through our Territory, for the purpose of apprising our citizens of the market which may be expected for almost every description of provisions which they can raise. They must necessarily scatter large sums of money through our Territory in procuring the means of subsistence on their journey, and we hope our citizens will look well to their interest in providing themselves with a sufficient surplus of provisions to meet the demands of the emigrants. The receipts from those sources will prove a very seasonable relief to those who complain of the "hard times" and scarcity of money.

Arkansas Gazette, February 23, 1831


Office of the Comy. Gen'l. of Subsistence,

Washington, 30th Nov. 1830.

SIR-I am apprized by the Secretary of War, that about one thousand Choctaw Indians will immediately emigrate to the Kiamitia, probably to the neighborhood of Can't. Towson.-The balance of the Nation, consisting of 18 or 19,000 souls, will probably emigrate in two or three years. Col. Arbuckle has been instructed to relieve you, and you will consider this an order to repair with as little delay as possible, to the vicinity of Cant. Towson, and make yourself thoroughly acquainted with the present and probable future resources of the country, for furnishing the Indian ration, of Corn, Beef or Pork, and Salt. The result of your observations and inquiries will be fully and freely detailed to this office, as early as practicable. You are requested to apprize the nearest settlers of the probable market they will soon have for their corn and cattle, and hold out every probable inducement for them to raise both, in quantities sufficient to meet the expected demand. The length of your absence on this duty, will depend on circumstances; but you are requested to remain, while you can promote the object of your journey. On leaving Can't. Gibson, apprize me where to address you.

Very respectfully, your most ob't. serv't.

(Signed) Geo. Gibson, C.G.S.

Lt. L.F.Carter,

A.C.S. Can't. Gibson.


17th February, 1831.

SIR-I have the honor to say, that, in obedience to your instructions of the 30th November last, I have visited the country in the vicinity of Cant' Towson and all the principal settlements in Hempstead and Sevier counties, which, together with the counties of Lafayette, Clark, and Union, that are also proximate to the Choctaw country, will, I have no doubt, be able to supply the provisions requisite to subsist the Indians expected to emigrate to this country. This opinion is founded more upon the representations of intelligent gentlemen of the country, whose veracity cannot be questioned, than upon personal observation. Every proper exertion has also been used to induce the farmers of Hempstead and Sevier counties, to engage largely in the cultivation of corn, as it is from these two counties that the supply must be furnished; and I am gratified in being able to report, that this part of the ration will be abundant, and can be furnished at a moderately cheap rate by the ensuing fall. Establishments for the manufactory of salt, in this part of the country, are very numerous, and will at any time be ready to furnish the requisite quantity of this article.

I am assured, that, at this time, the four counties nearest the Choctaw country, can furnish at least 1,500 beeves, any number of hogs, 6,000 bushes of corn, and salt in large quantities; but, supposing this an exaggerated account, I am convinced the settlements on the Arkansas river, will more than make up any deficiency, and many on that river would no doubt, be glad to participate in the contracts. I here beg leave, therefore, respectfully to suggest to the Department, the propriety of making five or six, instead of one general contract; this will
enable many to participate, who, under other circumstances, would be left almost entirely to the mercy of speculators, and result, I think, in a saving to the Government.

The salt should be contracted for separately, and the other parts of the ration in five different contracts. The expense of transporting these articles from this section of the country, to some convenient place for issue, will be considerable, and, at present, no method presents itself by which the difficulty can be obviated.

It is generally supposed here, from the representations of Col. Gaines, the gentleman who accompanied the exploring party, that a large number of the Choctaws will settle west of the Kiamichi river. Should this be the case, the most convenient place for issues will be near the junction of that river with Red river, where, I believe, the different parts of the ration may be delivered, by contract, at nearly the following prices, viz:

Beef or Pork, at from $2 50 to $3 pr. 100 lbs.

Corn, at from 87 1/2 to $1 12 1/2 pr. bushel.

Salt, at from $1 12 1/2 to $1 25 pr. bushel.

Such is the scarcity of money in the country, and so great the demand for it, that I cannot but believe, if due notice is given, that the contracts will be taken at very fair prices. Should meal be substituted in place of corn, the change will be attended by considerable increase of expense, and will frequently render a compliance with engagements almost impracticable.

There are yet tow settlements that I have been prevented from visiting by high water; should any thing new occur, it will be immediately communicated.

I shall be extremely anxious to return to Can't. Gibson, unless my remaining here can subserve your views. Be so good as to have your wishes communicated to me, at this place, as soon as convenience will permit.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your ob't. serv't.

L.F.Carter, Lt. and A.C.S. 7th Inf.

Gen. George Gibson, C.G.S. Washington, D.C.

Arkansas Gazette, February 23, 1831


Lieut. L.F. Carter, Acting Commissary of Subsistence U.S.A., arrived at this place on Sunday last, from the southern part of the Territory, where he has been for some time past for the purpose of ascertaining the capacity of that section of the country for furnishing the requisite supplies to subsist the Indians who are expected to emigrate from the east side of the Mississippi, during the present and ensuing years. His report to the Commissary General of Subsistence, dated 17th ult., was published in the Gazette of 23d ult.; and we are gratified to learn from him, that his observations since that time, fully confirm the opinion expressed by him in that report, as to the capability of the country for furnishing the necessary supplies of provisions and salt, for the subsistence of the emigrating Indians.

We also learn from Lt. C., that Lieut. J. R. Stephenson, of 7th Inf., has been ordered to the vicinity of the Kiamechia river, with a view to subsist the Choctaw emigrants that have or may hereafter reach the country. He has already made arrangements that will meet the current demands for the ensuing two or three months, at the expiration of which time a contract will be made to furnish the requisite supplies for the present year.

Arkansas Gazette, March 30, 1831


Captain Clark, of the Commissary Department, arrived here on Wednesday last from St. Louis, on his way to Fort Smith, where, we understand, is to be established a depot for the reception of stores intended for the use of the emigrating Choctaws.

Arkansas Advocate, April 13, 1831


Capt. Clark, of the Commissary Department of the U.S. Army, returned to this place, a few days ago, from Fort Smith, where he has been employed, for a few weeks past, in superintending the repairs of the public store-houses at that place, for the reception of the provisions to be collected at that point for the subsistence of the emigrating Indians.

We understand, from Capt. Clark, that he has been advised by the Secretary of War, that Col. Reynolds and Maj. Gaines, (who superintended the two exploring parties of Chickasaw and Chocktaw Indians which visited the country west of Arkansas, last winter), have reported in favor of ferrying the emigrating Indians across the Mississippi, at Helena, and transporting them by land from thence to their several points of destination. This route, we believe, had not been decided on by the Secretary of War; but there can be little doubt, that the recommendation of those gentlemen will have great weight with him. If it be selected, as we have no doubt, it will, those who intend settling on the Arkansas, will proceed direct to the west from the Big Prairie; and those destined for Red river, will cross the Arkansas at or near this place, and proceed to the south, via Washington. The emigration will commence as early as September or October next; and as several thousands may be expected, we hope our citizens who reside on the routes they may travel, will be prepared to furnish them with such provisions as they may stand in need of, for which they will receive the ready cash. They will afford a ready and excellent market for every kind of produce that our citizens may have to dispose of.

Arkansas Gazette, May 25, 1831


By reference to the Proposals for furnishing sixty yoke of oxen, in our advertising page, it will be seen that Captain Clark will now receive bids for any number of oxen, from ONE to ten pair-instead of, as before advertised, from three to ten yoke.

Arkansas Advocate, June 13, 1831


Little Rock, A.T.

May 25th, 1831.

Sealed Proposals will be received by the subscriber, at this place, until the sixth day of July next, for the delivery of sixty pair, or yoke, of oxen, between the age of five and nine years old, to be in good order, well broke to work, and no ox to weigh less than six hundred pounds.

It is proposed to enter into separate contacts for any number of oxen from one, to ten pair, until the whole number required are contracted for; the oxen to be delivered at this place between the 20th and 31st of August next.

Persons making proposals will please state the number of pair they can furnish, together with the age and weight, and the price at which they will be delivered.

Good and sufficient security for the faithful performance of contracts will be required, and payment will be made on the delivery of the oxen; persons unknown to the subscriber, will please give respectable references as to their capacity to furnish; it is also desirable that they should come to this place to close their contracts.

J.B. CLARK, Capt. U.S. Army, Sup'g. Reml. And Subst, of Indians.

Arkansas Advocate, June 13, 1831


Little Rock, July 30th, 1831

Sealed Proposals will be received by the subscriber at this place, until the 16th of August, 1831, for supplying fresh beef, corn and salt for the Indians from Little Rock, Arkansas Territory, by the way of Washington, Hempstead county, to the Choctaw country, near the mouth of Kiamechia, the number of the Indians to be supplied will be about five thousand–the provisions to be deposited for issue, at intervals of from eighteen to twenty-four miles–to be regulated by places convenient to water–the quantity to be deposited at each stand, will be about 300 bushes of corn, 15,000 pounds of beef, and 6 1/2 bushels of salt, (32 quarts to the bushel,) the beef to be slaughtered and delivered in quarters, and the hides to be the property of the contractor. The Indians it is believed, will pass this place about the 12th October next.

Persons making proposals will please state the price at which they will furnish the ration, to consist of one and a half pounds of beef, one pint of corn, and two quarts of salt, to every hundred rations; they will also state the price at which they will furnish beef by the pound, and corn and salt by the bushel.

The subscriber reserves to himself the privilege of issuing to the Indians four days' rations of flour and pork at Little Rock, and the same at Washington, Hempstead county.

Good and sufficient security will be required for the faithful performance of the contract. Persons making bids will please attend at this place, on the 17th of August, that there may be no delay in closing a contract.

J.B. CLARK, Capt. U.S.A. Supt'ng R.&S. of Indians.

Note.–Proposals will be received for supplying provisions from the Mississippi to Little Rock, as soon as the crossing place is ascertained, of which notice will be given.

Arkansas Advocate, August 31, 1831


Proposals for Beef.

Little Rock, Sept. 15th, 1831

Sealed Proposals will be received, by the subscriber, at this place, until the 22d day of October, 1831, for the delivery of one million and eighty thousand pounds of fresh beef. At the Mouth of Kiamechia on Red River, on the 20th day of December, 1831.

It is the wish of the subscriber to divide the above quantity of Beef into three separate contracts; persons making proposals will please state the price at which they will deliver at the place above named, Three hundred and sixty thousand pounds of Beef, in bulk on the hoof; also, the price at which they will slaughter and deliver the same quantity, the hides and tallow, in the latter case, to be the property of the contractor.

Good and sufficient security will be required for the faithful performance of contracts, and payment will be made at this place, on producing the receipts of the United States' Agent at Kiamechia, for the delivery of the Beef.

Persons making proposals will please attend at this place on the 28th day of October, that contracts may be closed as soon as practicable.

J.B. CLARK, Capt. U.S. Army, Supt'g. the Rem'l. & Sub's of Indians.

Arkansas Advocate, October 12, 1831


Removal of Indians.-We understand that Capt. J.B. CLARK, superintendent for the subsistence and removal of the emigrating Indians, who is located at this place, received advices by the last mail, that the Choctaws are collecting for the purpose of removing to their lands west of Arkansas, and that they will shortly be ready to cross the Mississippi at the following points,viz: Vicksburg, Point Chicot, Mouth of White river, and Memphis, under the direction and control of such Agents as have been appointed to superintend their subsistence and removal.-We also learn, that, in addition to the parties about crossing at the above named places, under the direction of Agents of the Government, a party consisting of about 200 souls, is collecting, for the purpose of emigrating in their own way, and accepting the commutation of $10 per head offered by the Government, in lieu of rations, &c. The last named party will cross the Mississippi at Memphis, and will pass to their new homes at Kiamicha, via this place, and Washington, in Hempstead country.

We are also informed, that Lieut. Ryan has received a letter from Maj. Hook, of the Commissary Department, advising him that the Cherokees within the State of Georgia are about to emigrate to Arkansas, and that the appointment of Superintendent of their removal had been offered to an officer of the Army.

Arkansas Gazette, October 19, 1831


Capt. Jacob Brown, of the U.S. Army, arrived here on Monday last. He succeeds Capt. Clark, as Superintendent of the removal and subsistence of the Emigrating Indians, the latter gentleman having requested to be relieved, and permitted to join his Company in the 3d Infantry, which has been recently ordered to Cantonment Towson.

Arkansas Gazette, October 19, 1831


In our last, we omitted to mention the arrival of Capt. Brown, of the U.S. Army. He succeeds Capt. Clark, we understand, as superintendent of the removal and subsistence of the Emigrating Indians, Capt. C. having requested permission to join his Company at Cantonment Towson.

Arkansas Advocate, October 26, 1831


The Emigrating Indians-We learn, that Capt. Brown, Superintending the Removal of the Indians, has received information from the Old Choctaw Nation, east of the Mississippi, that not less than 7,000 Choctaws will emigrate to their new homes west of the Arkansas, during the present season. Some 400 or 500 of this number, will remove on their own resources, and accept the commutation of $10 per head, offered by the Government, on their arrival at their new homes. The remainder will remove under the direction of Agents of the Government, and will cross the Mississippi at sundry points-Memphis, Helena, Mouth of White river, Point Chicot, Vicksburg, and probably others. It is probable that some of the parties have already crossed the Mississippi, though no certain information of their crossing has yet been received by the Superintendent. At all events, but few weeks will elapse, before all the avenues, by land and by water, leading through the Territory to the country ceded to the Choctaws, will be thronged with these sons of the forest, on their journey to seek new homes to the far west. We hope that their reception, by our citizens, as they pass though our Territory, will be of that kind and humane character that will secure to us their respect and friendship. They will hereafter be our neighbors-kindness and humanity toward them, will make them our friends.

Arkansas Gazette, November 16, 1831



We have received a letter from Col. Wm Rector, Special Agent for Superintending the Removal and Subsistence of the Indians, dated at Vicksburg, Miss., 11th inst., from which we learn, that about 4000 Choctaw Indians were expected to reach that place, by the 20th inst., about 3500 of which he supposed would ascend the Arkansas, and the balance would emigrate by land, via Monroe, La., with their horses, cattle, &c.

The gentleman who was the bearer of the letter above referred to, informed us, that from 50 to 100 Indians had reached Vicksburg, before he left, and that about 2000 more were but a short distance behind them. It was understood, that the Agents found considerable difficulty in getting the Indians started.

We also learn, that Capt. Brown, Superintendent, &c. has received information from Memphis, that a party of about 500 Indians were expected to arrive at that place from the23d to the 28th inst.

We shall endeavor to keep our readers advised of the movements of the Indians, to enable those residing on or near the routes they may travel to make some calculations as to the probable market they will meet with for the sale of their corn and other surplus produce which they may have to dispose of.

Arkansas Gazette, November 23, 1831



We stop the press to announce the arrival, last evening, of Capt. Clark and Lieut. Ryan, of the U.S. Army, from Mouth of White river. They bring us the interesting news, that upwards of 500 of Fulsom's party of the Emigrating Choctaws arrived at the Post of Arkansas on Saturday last, on board the steam-boar Reindeer, and they presume there are, by this time, over 5000 Choctaws at that place. They may be looked for here in a few days.

Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1831


Capt. Clark and Lieut. Ryan arrived in this place last evening from the Mississippi–when they left the Post 600 of the emigrating Indians had arrived at that place, and about 3000 more were hourly expected.

Arkansas Advocate, November 30, 1831


The steam-boat Reindeer, Capt. Miller, arrived here on Sunday last, from the Mississippi, with goods for Fort Smith, and having in tow a large keel, with troops for Cantonment Gibson. In consequence of the low state of the water, the keel was left six miles below this place, and the Reindeer discharged her cargo, and on Monday returned to the Mouth of White River.

We understand that Capt. Brown has chartered the Reindeer, for the transportation of the Indians to this place, and that she will immediately return with as many as she can bring up.

The Reindeer is a fine boat, of great power, and by far the fastest boat that has ever been on the Arkansas–her draught of water is rather too great, for our river.

Arkansas Advocate, December 7, 1831


The emigrating Indians-Since our last, expresses have arrived here, to Capt. Brown, from Post of Arkansas, announcing the arrival at that place of the steam-boat Walter Scott, from Vicksburg, with about 1200 emigrating Choctaws, and of the steam-boat Brandywine, from Memphis, with upwards of 500 more, increasing the number of Indians now at that place to about 2000 souls. We understand, the steam-boat Reindeer has been chartered to bring them up the Arkansas as high as this place, and that wagons will be prepared for conveying those who cannot travel on foot from hence to their destination on Red river.

Arkansas Gazette, December 14, 1831


 The Emigrating Indians-A small party of 18 or 20 Choctaws, having in charge about 100 head of Indian horses, arrived on the opposite side of the river on Sunday evening last, and left there yesterday morning for Fort Smith.-They crossed the Mississippi at Memphis, and came through by land from that place.

We also understand that a considerable party of the Choctaws are now in the Big Prairie, on their way up from the Post of Arkansas, and that they are expected to reach here to-day or to-morrow.

It gives us pleasure to learn, that these Indians have suffered much less with the cold, during the late unusually inclement weather, than could have been reasonably expected; and that they express much satisfaction with the arrangements which have been made for their comfort, by the Agents appointed to superintend their removal.

The steam-boat Reindeer was lying at Post of Arkansas, a few days ago, waiting for a rise of water, to bring up a load of Emigrating Indians.

Arkansas Gazette, December 21, 1831


 The Emigrating Indians-Between five and six hundred Choctaw Indians, of Col. Folsom's party, under the charge of Lieut. RYAN, arrived opposite this place on Wednesday last, from Post of Arkansas, and the whole of the remainder of the week was consumed in transporting them and their baggage, horses &c across the Arkansas, and removing them to a suitable spot selected by Capt. Brown, for their encampment, about three miles south of this place, where they will remain. A great number of teams have been employed for the purpose of removing these Indians to the south, and we understand they will probably break up their encampment to-morrow, and proceed on their journey to Red river.

We learn, by a gentleman from Washington, that 500 or 600 Emigrating Choctaws arrived at Ecore Fabre some ten days since, on their way to the west, and he supposes about 2000 have arrived at the same point ere this, for the same destination.

Arkansas Gazette, December 28, 1831



Ninety large wagons, with teams of 4 and 6 horses or oxen, engaged in the transportation of the Choctaw Emigrants, left this place and vicinity, on Thursday last, 29th ult., in opposite directions and in about equal numbers.

One portion of them, with about 550 emigrants, under their Chief, Col. D. Folsom, have gone to the west, and are bound for the Red river section of the New Choctaw Country.-This party is in charge of Lieut. Ryan, U. S. Agent for Superintending the Removal of Indians, and is expected to reach the end of its journey by the 25th inst. These people will settle within 30 miles of the western boundary of this Territory, on the waters of Mountain and Glover's Forks.

The other portion of the teams have gone to the Post of Arkansas, to convey another party of emigrants from thence to the Kiamechia, via this place, and are expected here by the 20th instant.

About 1000 emigrants, via Red river and the Washita, it is expected passed Washington, Hempstead county, on or about the 1st inst., on their way to Kiamechia; and there are about 2000 now at the Post of Arkansas, waiting the arrival of wagons to convey them to their destination. About 1,400 of the larger number go to the Kiamechia-the residue will settle on the Arkansas, near Fort Smith.

We visited the emigrants while they lay at Camp Pope, about 3 miles south of this place, a few days previous to their leaving for the south, and were very agreeably surprized to remark the degree of cheerfulness and contentment which seemed to prevail in every part of the Camp. They appeared to be bountifully fed with bacon, fresh beef, and corn, and, with very few exceptions, comfortably clad, and to exhibit generally quite as great a degree of comfort as is usual to be found about an Indian camp.-Some few cases of sickness and a few deaths had occurred, but the number of either were much smaller than might have been reasonably expected, when the inclemency of the weather which they had encountered on their journey from the Post of Arkansas, was taken into consideration. Those who were ill, were restored by the attentions of a Physician provided by Capt. BROWN, and by the rest which they were able to obtain while the party lay in camp, and few, if any, cases of illness remained when they resumed their journey to the south.

We conversed with several of the emigrants, (some of whom spoke English fluently), and were gratified to learn, that the party were perfectly satisfied with the arrangements made by Capt. Brown, for their comfort, and could not learn that a murmur or complaint against him, or any of the Agents of the Government employed in their removal, was to be heard throughout the camp. The party left the Saline, 30 miles south of this, on Saturday morning last, and were proceeding on very finely when last heard from.

Arkansas Gazette, January 4, 1832


The party of emigrating Indians who left here on the 29th ult. were at Clark C. H., about 40 miles this side of Washington, on Saturday last.

Arkansas Gazette, January 11, 1832



The steam-boat Reindeer, Capt. Miller, arrived on Sunday evening last, from Post of Arkansas, with a keel-boat of 170 tons burthen in tow, both filled with Emigrating Choctaw Indians, under the direction of Col. W. Rector, of whom upward of 1,100 were brought up. The Reindeer, having discharged her passengers and freight, left, on Monday evening, for Mouth of White river, and if the state of the river will admit of her getting up may be expected back with another party of Emigrants, on Monday or Tuesday next.

The Indians were landed near half a mile below town, from whence, by direction of Capt. Brown, the Superintendent, they have since been removed, with their baggage, to Camp Pope, about 3 miles south of this place, where they will remain for a few days, until the public wagons arrive from Post of Arkansas, to convey them to their future homes on Red river.

We visited them two or three times while they were encamped below the landing, and our town has been almost constantly thronged with them since their arrival, and we can truly say, that we have never met with a parcel of Indians who appeared to be more contented and happy than they do. They are well fed and quite as comfortably clad as Indians generally are, and we heard of but few cases of illness among them-indeed, fewer than might have been reasonably expected in so large a body. They appear to be perfectly docile and harmless, exhibiting, as far as we can learn, no disposition to encroach on the rights of our citizens; and it gives us much satisfaction to state, that we have not heard of a single instance of disturbance or collision between them and the whites, and we sincerely hope the same terms of friendship and amity may long subsist between them and their white neighbors.

Another party of between 300 and 400 Emigrants have left the Post of Arkansas some days since, by land, and may be looked for here about the last of this or the beginning of next week.

A company of about 400 Choctaws, of Capt. Jere. Folsom's party, crossed the Mississippi at Point Chicot, about the last of Dec., and will proceed by land to their country on Red river, via Core Fabre and Washington, under the charge of Wm. McK. Ball, Esq., Special Agent for Subsisting and Removing Indians.

Arkansas Gazette, January 18, 1832


Maj. Francis Armstrong, who has been recently appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Choctaw Nation West of the Mississippi, arrived at this place on Friday last, on his way to the Western Choctaw Agency.

Arkansas Gazette, January 25, 1832



A party of about 400 Emigrating Choctaws, in charge of Col. Childress, arrived at this place, by land, from the Post of Arkansas, on Sunday last, and have since been removed to Camp Pope, and rejoined Col. RECTOR'S party which has been encamped there for several days, and now consists of about 1500 souls. This party are expected to take up their line of march for the south in a day or two.

The Steam-boat Reindeer, Capt. Miller, arrived on Sunday evening last, from Mouth of White river, with a keel-boat in tow, having performed her trip from hence to the Mouth and back in a few hours over six days. She brought up about 500 Emigrating Choctaws, in charge of Dr. John T. Fulton, Special Agent for the removal of Indians, and left on Monday evening for Fort Smith, where the Emigrants will be landed.

Arkansas Gazette, January 25, 1832



About 1300 of the Emigrating Choctaws, under the direction of Col. Rector, Special Agent in the Removal and Subsistence of Indians, occupying fifty large wagons, broke up their encampment in the vicinity of this place, on Saturday last, and re-commenced their journey for the Red river section of their new country, near the Kiamiche, where, it is understood, they intend settling.

For the want of a sufficient number of wagons, about 200 Emigrants, encamped with the above, and belonging to the same party, were obliged to remain behind until other means could be procured for their transportation.-Wagons have since been obtained, and we are informed by the Superintendent, Capt. Brown, that this party will leave in the course of to-day, for the south, and will probably overtake the main body before they reach their destination in their new country.-It is expected these people will arrive at their new homes by the lst of March next, and we heartily wish them more peace and quietness there, than they have enjoyed for several years past at those which they have left east of the Mississippi.

The party of Emigrants, under the direction of Dr. Fulton, Special Agent, &c. which left here on the Reindeer, on the 23d ult., were landed about 80 or 90 miles above this, the low stage of the river rendering it impracticable for the steam-boat to ascend farther, and will proceed up from thence in keel-boats to their destination at Fort Smith, which they are expected to reach on or about the 10th inst.

Arkansas Gazette, February 1, 1832



The party of Emigrating Choctaws, noticed in our last, as being encamped in this vicinity, left for their new homes in the Red river country, on Wednesday evening last, under the charge of Col. Samuel M. Rutherford, Special Agent in the Removal and Subsistence of Indians. This party consists of about 200 souls, and is the last party that is expected to pass through this place during the present season. The emigration will re-commence next autumn.

A gentleman who arrived here yesterday morning, from the vicinity of Cantonment Towson, in the Red river section of the Choctaw country, informs us, that the party of emigrants who left here on the 29th Dec. last, in charge of Lieut. Ryan, had reached their destination, and appeared to be well pleased with their country, so far as they had seen it. The party which left here, in charge of Col. RECTOR, on the 28th ult., were passed on this side of the Caddo, waiting for a recent rise in that stream to subside sufficiently for them to cross it. And Col. Rutherford's party was passed in Hot Spring county, about 30 miles on this side of Col. Rector's party, progressing very well.

Arkansas Gazette, February 8, 1832


The steam-boat Saratoga, Capt. Kimball, arrived at this place, on Saturday morning last, from New-Orleans, and departed, early on Sunday morning, on her return to same port. Her freight up consisted principally of the stores of Col. Decatur, Suttler to that part of the 7th reg't, now at Cantonment Gibson, which were recently transferred from CantonmentJesup.

The steam-boat Elk, Capt. Krepps, passed down, on Monday morning last, in about 26 hours from Fort Smith, and is expected back from Mouth of White river about the last of this week. We understand she took on board, at the Dardanelles, Dr. Fulton's party of Choctaw Emigrants, and landed them all safely at Fort Smith.

The steam-boat Reindeer passed Fort Smith on Friday last, with the detachment of U.S. troops who recently left this vicinity, for Can't. Gibson. She may be looked for here about the last of this week, and will leave, by Monday next, for New-Orleans.

Arkansas Gazette, February 22, 1832


The steam-boat Elk, Capt. English, arrived on Thursday last, from Fort Smith, and left, same night, for Mouth of White river-returned from thence about 1 o'clock P. M. yesterday, and left, this morning bound up the river.-Her trip to the Mouth of White river and back to this place, is the quickest ever performed between the two places.

Arkansas Gazette, March 14, 1832


Maj. Francis W. Armstrong, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Choctaw Nation West of the Mississippi, arrived here on Monday, from the west. We understand he has been engaged, since he left here in Jan. last, in exploring the Choctaw country and making himself acquainted with the situation of the Indians whose interests he has been sent to guard and protect, and that he will leave here for Washington City on the first boat descending the Arkansas.

Arkansas Gazette, March 21, 1832



We learn, by gentlemen from Crawford county, that the U.S. Surveyors, who have been for some time past employed in surveying the Public Lands in Crawford and Washington counties, have recently received an order from the Surveyor General, to suspend surveying any lands lying west of Brown's line, which runs a north course from the Arkansas river to the southern boundary of the State of Missouri.-The construction which the people have put upon this order is, that the Government intend offering the county lying west of that line-being a strip of land near 80 miles long by about 21 miles wide-to the Cherokee Indians east of the Mississippi, on condition that they will remove to the west. As may well be supposed, this order has produced considerable excitement among the people in the western part of the Territory; and a report brought last week, by a Mr. Ryter, of the Old Cherokee Nation, who passed up on the Elk, will not b e calculated to lessen the apprehensions of our citizens. Mr. Ryter informed us, that he had recently seen a letter from the President, addressed to some leading persons in the Old Cherokee Nation, offering to give the Cherokees the counties of Washington and Crawford, on condition that they would remove en masse west of the Mississippi. Our informant appears to be a respectable man, and we have no reason to doubt his havingseen a letter from the President which he believes contains the offer alluded to; but we cannot divest ourselves of the belief that there is some misapprehension about the matter.

We have no doubt the President is anxious to remove all the Indians to the west side of the Mississippi, and that he will use every legal means in his power to effect that desirable object; but, as he does not possess the power of ceding the lands in any "ORGANIZED TERRITORY" to the Indians, and as the country alluded to above is within the organized limits of Arkansas, we do not believe he has offered it to the Cherokees. Our authority for the assertion that he does not possess this power, will be found in the 1st section of the act, entitled "An act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the States and Territories, and for their removal west of the river Mississippi," approved 28th May, 1828, and is as follows:

"Be it enacted, &c., That it shall and may be lawful for the President of the United States to cause so much of any territory belonging to the United States, west of the river Mississippi, not included in any STATE OR ORGANIZED TERRITORY, and to which the Indian title has been extinguished, as he may judge necessary, to be divided into a suitable number of districts, for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside, and remove there; and to cause each of said districts to be so described by natural or artificial marks, as to be easily distinguished from every other."

This ought to quiet the fears of our citizens, but if more is wanted, it will be found in the assurance given by the President and Secretary of War, to Mr. Sevier, in Dec. 1830. It will be recollected, that, in the autumn of 1830, a report was circulated, that the Chickasaws had been offered some of our western counties, in exchange for their lands east of the Mississippi. We expressed our disbelief in the rumor, at the time, and cited the foregoing act as evidence that there could be no foundation for it; and, shortly after Mr. Sevier arrived at Washington, in the following winter, he made it his business to call on the President and Secretary of War, for the express purpose of ascertaining from them what the intentions of Government were in relation to the disposition of her lands in Arkansas. The result of this interview will be found in the following extract of a letter from him, dated 17th Dec. 1830, which was published in the Gazette of the 19th Jan. 1831:

"I called, yesterday, upon the President and Secretary of War, and from them had the happiness to learn, that our predictions about the purport of the late Indian treaties, were well founded. The Choctaws get no other country west of the Mississippi than they previously owned, and the Chickasaws are to select a country south of 36 degrees north latitude, and west of the Choctaws. Upon intimating to the Secretary of War, that a rumor was afloat in Arkansas that the Chickasaw Indians were authorized to select any country west of the Mississippi river, without regard to our Territorial boundaries-the Secretary replied, that he regretted any of our citizens should have given themselves any uneasiness upon that subject-that the government had assured me that the limits of Arkansas should not be disturbed, and that, even if they had been inclined to disturb or mutilate our Territory, the act of Congress passed at the last session would have prevented them from so doing. You may rest assured that, whatever arrangements the government, in its wisdom, may take in regard to that class of our fellow-beings, no portion of Arkansas will be granted to them. This you may consider as a point settled."

We do not know what stronger assurances our citizens can wish, than those given by the President to Mr. Sevier, as detailed in the foregoing letter, that it is not the intention of the Government to disturb "the limits of Arkansas," by the cession of any of her lands to the Indians. It is natural that the rumors to which we have alluded, should awaken some uneasiness in the minds of those who reside in the western counties, but a reference to the law which we have recited above and the foregoing extract from Mr. Sevier's letter, will, we think, remove their doubts, and assure them of their safety. We have again and again expressed our belief, that there is not even a remote probability of any portion of our Territory ever being ceded to the Indians; and we again repeat, that we believe the President feels too lively an interest in the growth and prosperity of the West, and of the advancement of Arkansas to the rank which she must shortly assume as one of the States of the Confederacy, to sanction for one moment an act of such gross injustice and oppression.

Arkansas Gazette, March 21, 1832


The steam-boat Reindeer, Capt. Miller, arrived on Thursday evening last, from New-Orleans, with a large keel-boat in tow, both deeply laden, and 35 or 40 cabin passengers, about the same number of deck passengers, and between 70 and 80 emigrating Cherokees. She left on Friday evening, bound for Fort Smith, and perhaps for Cantonment Gibson, if the state of the river will admit of her ascending that distance.

We regret to learn, that, shortly after leaving the Mouth of White river, a respectable half-breed Cherokee woman, by the name of Vann, aged about 60 years, unfortunately fell overboard from the keel-boat, in the night, and was drowned. The steam-boat was stopped the moment the alarm was given, and the yawl sent to succor the sufferer, but she was not seen after falling into the water.

Arkansas Gazette, March 28, 1832


Removal of Indians. —The Secretary of War, in a Report lately communicated by the President to Congress, states that according to the best estimate that can be made, the number of Indians who have emigrated to the territory appropriated to them, west of the state of Missouri, and the Arkansas Territory, is 19 390—of whom 6,000 are Chocktaws, 3,500 Cherokees, 2,500 Creeks, 3,000 Delaware, 1,500 Shawnees, 800 Kickapoos, and the rest belonging to various smaller tribes. The number of Indians south of Michigan, who have not emigrated, he estimates to be 36,460, viz: Creek 20,000, Cherokees 11,000, Florida Indians 4,000, Miamis 1,000 and Wyandots, 450. —The territory which the Government proposes to assign to these tribes, is estimated to contain 100 millions of acres, of which about 50 millions have been already allotted to 8 tribes of Indians.

[Boston Daily Adv.

Arkansas Advocate, May 9, 1832


Important to Graziers, &c.-The attention of graziers and farmers of our Territory is called to an advertisement of Capt. Brown's, in a subsequent column, giving notice that he will receive sealed proposals, until the 1st August next, for 1,024,000 lbs. Fresh Beef, for the subsistence of the Choctaw Indians west of Arkansas. There is no part of the United States where cattle are so easily raised, or where Beef can be afforded so low, as in Arkansas, and we therefore confidently hope that the contracts for furnishing this large supply will be taken by our own citizens, who perhaps have as much need of the money as those of any other section of the Union.

Arkansas Gazette, May 23, 1832


The Choctaws and Pawnees.-We learn by a gentleman from the south, that a hunting party of Choctaws were recently attacked by a party of Pawnees, whom they repulsed, after killing three of their assailants and taking 4 or 5 prisoners, and without losing any of their own party.

Arkansas Gazette, May 23, 1832


Another Indian Rumor put to rest.-On hearing the rumor, which was some time since circulated in the western part of the Territory, that the President had offered to give the counties of Crawford and Washington to the Cherokees of Georgia, provided they would consent to remove en masse west of the Mississippi, we not only expressed our disbelief of the story in our paper at the time, and gave our reasons at some length for believing it to be a fabrication, but immediately wrote to Mr. Sevier on the subject, and requested him to procure from the proper Department at Washington, such a contradiction of it as would have a tendency to prevent such rumors, not only from getting afloat, but from gaining credence in future, among the people. This request he has complied with; and we received from him, by last week's mail, the following letter, with that which follows it addressed to him by the Secretary of War, which we feel much gratification in laying before our readers. A more satisfactory answer could not be given to the citizens of this Territory on the subject-and we hope the assurance which it gives-"THAT THE PRESIDENT NEVER CONTEMPLATED THE CESSION OF ONE FOOT OF THE TERRITORY OF ARKANSAS TO ANY TRIBE OF INDIANS, AND NEVER SUPPOSED FOR A MOMENT THAT HE HAD ANY AUTHORITY TO MAKE SUCH A CESSION"-will tend to dispel all fears, if any still exist, in relation to the late rumor, and put them on their guard against listening to any idle tales that may be fabricated in future, with a view to exciting uneasiness in their minds.

As the Advocate first gave currency to the rumor, and that, too, without any qualification whatever, and subsequently published a communication calculated to increase the alarm already excited, we hope that print will do an act of justice to Mr. Sevier, and at the same time gratify many of its readers, by copying the following letters into its columns, and thereby partially repair the injury which it has probably done, in checking emigration to that fertile and interesting section of our Territory, which the authors of the story would have ceded to the Indians.

House of Rep's., April 18th, 1832.

DEAR SIR-I received your letter on yesterday, respecting the rumors prevailing in Arkansas, on the subject of giving the counties of Crawford and Washington to the Cherokees of Georgia, and forthwith enclosed it to the Secretary of War, accompanied by a pretty tart note from myself, asking for information upon this subject. To-day I received the enclosed letter from the Secretary of War, in reply to my note. You will perceive, that he puts to rest such rumors. I hope, the next time such a story is put in circulation, that the author of it may be forthwith gagged until he can learn to tell the truth.

Yours, &c. A. H. Sevier

P. S.-I will call to-morrow, and ascertain why the surveys west of Brown's line have been suspended.


April 16th, 1832.

SIR-I have just received your letter of yesterday, with its enclosures, and, while I state to you in answer, that the President never contemplated the cession of one foot of the Territory of Arkansas to any Tribe of Indians, and never supposed for a moment that he had any authority to make such a cession, you will allow me to express my surprise, that a rumor so extravagant in itself, could have given any uneasiness to the intelligent citizens of that Territory, or could have so far gained credence with you, as to call for the warm expressions you have used-expressions not out of place, if there had been any grounds for the rumor, but certainly not necessary till its truth was ascertained.

The surveys to which you allude, not being under the control of this Department, I cannot tell why they have been stopped. The circumstances can be doubtless satisfactorily explained at the Treasury Department. I return the letters you forwarded to me.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, Lew. Cass.

Hon. A. H. Sevier, House of Rep's

Arkansas Gazette, May 23, 1832


Proposals for one million and twenty-four thousand pounds of Beef.—It will be seen, by reference to our advertising column, that proposals will be received by Capt. Jacob Brown, Superintendent for the Removal and Subsistence of Indians, until the first day of August next, for furnishing and delivering one million and twenty-four thousand pounds of Beef, in the Choctaw Nation, west of this Territory.

Arkansas Advocate, May 23, 1832


Wanted—Horses, Oxen, and Teamsters.

The subscriber wishes to purchase, for the United States, between the 10th and 20th of August next, TWENTY GOOD AND SUBSTANTIAL WAGON HORSES, well broke to the harness, and perfectly sound.  None less than fifteen hands high, nor over eight years old, will be received.

                Also, between the dates as above stated, the subscriber will purchase twenty-five pair or yoke of OXEN; and of these, none but such as are well broke to work, young, not over eight years old, and well matched, need be offered, nor none of less weight than six hundred.

                From and after the 15th of next month, (August) from 10 to 15 TEAMSTERS, ox drivers, will find employment; good wages will be given; none but those of discreet habits, as well as that they understand driving and taking care of teams, need apply.

                J. BROWN, Capt. U. S.A.

                                Sup’t R. and S. of Indians.

Little Rock, A.T. July 10, 1832

Arkansas Advocate, July 11, 1832


The Beef Contracts.-On Wednesday last, being the day appointed by Capt. Brown, for opening the proposals, contracts were closed for furnishing 1,024,000 lbs. Of fresh Beef, for the subsistence of the Emigrating Indians. It gives us pleasure to state, that the contracts were all taken by citizens of the Territory, and at an average of about $3 16 3/4 per 100 lbs., which is about 60 cents per 100 lbs., less than the average of the last contracts, let out on the 22d Oct. last.

There was considerable competition among the bidders, and, although many were disappointed in not getting contracts, we have heard of no charge of unfairness being imputed to Capt. Brown. He acted in perfect good faith with all, and gave the contracts to the lowest responsible bidders.

Arkansas Gazette, August 8, 1832


Another Beef Contract-By reference to our advertising columns, our farmers and stock raisers will learn, that Capt. Brown, Superintendent of the Removal and Subsistence of Indians, will receive proposals, until the 22d Nov. next, for 1,050,000 lbs. of Beef, to be delivered to the new Choctaw Country west of Arkansas, for the subsistence of the emigrating Indians.

Arkansas Gazette, August 22, 1832


Proposals for Beef.

SEPARATE PROPOSALS, in writing, and sealed, will be received, until Thursday, the 22d day of November next (3 o'clock P.M.,) for furnishing and delivering One million and fifty thousands pounds of BEEF, in the new Choctaw Country west of the Territory of Arkansas, and as follows:

450,000 pounds, to be delivered at the depot near Fort Towson, or at such other places (not exceeding three) as shall be designated by the Receiving Agent, and none of them to exceed the distance of 50 miles from the Fort above named;

200,000 pounds, to be delivered at the depot at Horse Prairie, 20 miles west from Fort Towson, or at such places (not exceeding two) as shall be designated by the Receiving Agent, and neither of those to exceed the distance of 40 miles from the Depot above named; and

400,000 pounds, to be delivered at the depot 25 miles south-westwardly from Fort Smith, on the Arkansas, or at such other places (not exceeding three) as shall be designated by the Receiving Agent, and none of these to be more than 50 miles from the depot above named.

One-fourth of the several quantities of Beef, above designated, must be ready for delivery, and at all the depots, on or before the 1st day of January, 1833; and the residue, on or before the 1st day of February following.

The periods of delivery, the place or places where, and the quantities to be delivered at each place, will be designated, as above referred, and of which contractors will be duly notified (say ten days) prior to the period of each delivery.

It is expected that the whole of the Beef will be called for and received, on or before the 1st day of April, 1833.

The Beef offered, must be of good quality, and must be delivered slaughtered, in quarters, or on the hoof, as shall be required; the hides and rough tallow of the Beeves slaughtered, to be the property of contractors.

Good and sufficient sureties will be required for the faithful fulfillment of contracts; and persons making bids not know to the subscriber, are requested to make respectable references as to their capacities to furnish.

The privilege of rejecting bids deemed high, is reserved.

Bidders will please address their communications as follows:–"Proposals to furnish Beef." "To the Principal disbursing Agent, Choctaw Removal, Little Rock, A.T." And will, so far as it may be found convenient, attend at this place, on the last day of receiving "Proposals," (22d Nov.) for the purpose of closing contracts.

J. Brown, Capt. U.S.A., Sup't. R.&S. of Indians. Little Rock, A.T. Aug. 13, 1832.

The Editors of the "Missouri Republican" and "St. Louis Beacon," at St. Louis, Mo., and "Missouri Intelligencer," at Columbia, Mo., are requested to publish the above advertisement until the 10th day of November next, and send their bills (receipted), together with the first and last numbers of their respective papers, containing the same, to the office of the Arkansas Gazette, for payment, when the money will be immediately remitted to them by mail, or in any other mode that they may designate.

Arkansas Gazette, September 12, 1832




Will be received, until Thursday, the 20th day of September next, 1832, (noon), for furnishing and delivering at the depot, 25 miles south-westwardly from Fort Smith, on the Arkansas river, THREE THOUSAND BUSHELS OF GOOD MERCHANTABLE CORN: The same to be delivered as follows:

300 bushels on or before the 1st day of October; 700 bushes on or before the 1st day of November; and the balance, 2000 bushels on or before the 31st day of December, 1832.

Payment will be made for the Corn, when the whole is delivered.

The Corn will be received at the rate of thirty-two quarts to the bushel.

Bonds will be required for the faithful fulfillment of the contract.

The privilege of rejecting bids deemed high, is reserved.

Bidders will please address their communications to Lt. G. J. Rains, Agent in the Removal and Subsistence of Indians, at Fort Smith. They will also note on their communications, "Proposals to furnish Corn."

J. Brown, Capt. U.S.A. Sup't R.&S. of Indians. Little Rock, A.T. Aug. 10, 1832.

Arkansas Gazette, September 12, 1832



SEPARATE proposals, in writing, and sealed, will be received, until Monday, the first day of October next, at 12 o'clock, (noon), for furnishing and delivering Eighteen Thousand bushels of good sound merchantable CORN, to be delivered, in the New Choctaw country west of the Mississippi, and as follows:

5000 bushels at the depot near Fort Towson, Red river; 7000 bushels at the depot at Horse Prairie, 20 miles west from Fort Towson; 4000 bushels at the depot near Mountain Fork of Little River, 40 miles north-east from Fort Towson; and 2000 bushels at the depot near old Miller Court-house, 40 miles south-east from Fort Towson.

One-fourth of the quantity of Corn at the several depots above named, must be delivered on or before the 31st day of October; one-fourth on or before the 30th day of November, and the balance on or before the 31st day of December, 1832.

The Corn will be received at the rate of thirty-two quarts to the bushel.

Bonds will be required, for the faithful fulfillment of contracts.

The privilege of rejecting bids deemed high, is reserved.

Bidders will please address their communications to Lieut. J.R. Stephenson, Agent in the Removal and Subsistence of Choctaws, at Fort Towson. They will also not on their communications "Proposals to furnish Corn."

J. Brown, Capt. U.S.A. Sup't. R.&S. of Indians. Little Rock, A.T. Aug. 4, 1832.

Arkansas Gazette, September 12, 1832


We find the following in the New-Orleans Emporium, of 3d ult:

"In the Arkansas Gazette of July first, is an advertisement signed by J. Brown, Capt. U.S.A., calling for sealed proposals, to be sent in to him to the first of August, for furnishing, in the Choctaw nation, west of the territory of Arkansas-one million and twenty-four thousand pounds of beef.

Quere.-Why are notices relating to proposals of such magnitude, only published in a single, obscure paper, in one of the remotest corners of the union? Is it feared too great a competition will be produced amongst the bidders?"

REMARKS.-It would be doing injustice to Capt. Brown were we to permit the above insolent article (for, considering the circumstances under which it was published, we can look upon it in no other light,) to pass unnoticed.-The writer of it certainly could not have been ignorant of the fact, if he read the advertisement, that, so far from its publication being confined to "a single obscure paper in one of the remotest corners of the Union," a note was appended to it, ordering its publication in two newspapers at St. Louis, Mo., and another at Columbia, in the western part of the same State. Besides this, it was published in another "obscure paper" in this same remote corner of the Union, ycleped the "Arkansas Advocate."-Thus it will be seen, that, so far from its publication having been restricted to a "single obscure paper," for the purpose of preventing "competition," it was published in no less than five newspapers, circulating extensively in Arkansas and Missouri, which gave ample time (nearly 70 days) for distant bidders to prepare their proposals. The result proved that ample notice was given to produce great "competition," as it drew together between 30 and 40 bidders, and the contracts were taken at the very moderate average of only about $3 16 3/4 per 100 lbs. The next time the Emporium thinks proper to cast unmerited censure on Capt. Brown, or any other faithful public officer, we hope it will lay all the facts of the case before its readers, and thereby save us the trouble of correcting its misrepresentations.

Arkansas Gazette, September 12, 1832


Proposals for Beef

                We recommend to the earnest attention of our readers, the advertisement which appears in our paper of this day, concerning the supply of Beef and Rations for the Choctaw Indians, for the ensuing year.—The present is a variation of the advertisement for Beef inserted in our last page:  the former was for Beef only—the present gives to the bidder the choice of making a bid for Beef only, or making a bid for furnishing Rations, consisting of Beef, Corn and Salt.  To many persons it will afford a good opportunity of making disposition of the surplus Corn of their neighborhood, and in return bring them in a good price in cash.  We have no doubt the variation in the advertisement will be highly acceptable to many of our enterprising farmers, as the field of speculation is enlarged before them.

Arkansas Advocate, September 19, 1832


Interesting to Contractors.-The attention of contractors is called to Dr. Fulton's advertisement, in a subsequent, column, for receiving proposals, until the 8th proximo, for furnishing complete rations for the Choctaw Indians who will emigrate this fall, on the several routes they are expected to travel from the Mississippi river to their country west of Arkansas. They are expected to cross the Mississippi about the 1st Nov. next, and, from the information received, it is supposed from six to ten thousand will be in motion about that time, for their new homes.

Arkansas Gazette, September 26, 1832


Rations for Indians

PROPOSALS in writing, and sealed, will be received, until Monday the 8th day of October next, (3 o'clock P.M.), for furnishing and delivering to the Emigrating Choctaw Indians, COMPLETE RATIONS, together with FORAGE FOR TEAMS, whilst traveling to their new country, upon the following routes west of the Mississippi, to wit:

From Memphis, Tennessee, via Strong's to Mouth of Cache, on White River, A.T. From Helena, A.T. to mouth of Cache, on White River, A.T. From Mouth of Cache, via Mrs. Black's, Erwin's settlement, and Greathouse's, to Cadron creek, A. T. From Cadron creek, by way of the Military Road, to Fort Smith, A. T. From Post of Arkansas, A. T., via Mrs. Black's and Samson Gray's, to Little Rock, A.T. From Little Rock, via Barkman's, to Washington, Hempstead C.H., A.T. From Washington to the new Choctaw country near Fort Towson.

The number of Choctaws to be subsisted upon the foregoing routes, together with the places upon the routes for depositing the supplies, and also the time when deliveries will be required, will be known to the contractors, as accurately as circumstances will permit, by the 20th of next month.

The Ration will consist of one and one-fourth pounds of fresh Beef, and of three-fourths of a quart of Corn, to each person, and at the rate of four quarts of salt for every hundred persons. The provisions comprising the Ration must be of good quality, and delivered in good order.

The contractors to be at every expense attending the delivery and distribution of the provisions, and the issues to be made under the inspection and direction of an Agent having charge of the Indians.

The component parts of the Ration, as above stated, may be varied in the issues, from time to time, so as to make deliveries of one and one-fourth pounds of fresh or three-fourths of a pound of salted Pork, instead of Beef, and one pound of Wheat Flour instead of corn.

Bonds will be required for the faithful fulfillment of contracts; and persons making bids are requested to accompany them with satisfactory references as to their capacity to furnish.

The privilege of rejecting bids deemed high is reserved.

Bidders will please address their communications as follows: "Proposals to furnish Rations" "To the Principal Disbursing Agent, Indian Removal Little Rock, A.T." and will attend at this place, on the 9th of October, at ten o'clock A.M. for the purpose of closing the contract.

John T. Fulton, As't Ag't. Choctaw Removal. Little Rock, A.T., Sept. 25, 1832

P. S. The information which has been received at this office, from east of the Mississippi, computes the number of Emigrants which will enter the Territory, via Memphis or Helena, to be twenty-five hundred; about three thousand, it is supposed, will enter via the Post of Arkansas, and there are between three and four thousand, in addition to the above number, which it is not as yet ascertained at which point they will enter. It is more than probable that it will be by one or other of the above specified routes. The calculation at present is, that the Indians will reach the Mississippi by the 1st of November next.

Arkansas Gazette, September 26, 1832


Maj. F. W. Armstrong, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Choctaw Nation west of the Mississippi and Special Agent of the Choctaw Removal, arrived at this place, on Tuesday evening of last week; and after making the necessary arrangements for the subsistence and removal of the Emigrating Choctaws, who are expected to cross the Mississippi about the close of this, or in the early part of the ensuing month, left, on Thursday evening last, for Memphis, for the purpose of expediting the removal of the Indians under his charge. We understand the Indians will be embarked on board of team-boats at Memphis, Vicksburg, and other places on the Mississippi, and conveyed from thence up White river, to a point known by the name of Rock Roe, a few miles below the mouth of Cache, from which they will proceed by land to their destinations in the new Choctaw country west of Arkansas.

Arkansas Gazette, October 10, 1832


More Provisions wanted.–The attention of Contractors is called to the advertisement of Dr. Fulton, Acting Principal Disbursing Agent Choctaw Removal, in a subsequent column, inviting proposals to be made to him, at this place, until the 18th and 30th inst., for subsisting the Emigrating Indians, and the Teams, &c. employed in their transportation, during their journey through the Territory to their new homes.

These proposals, it will be seen, are invited, instead of those called for on Monday last, by Dr. Fulton’s advertisement of the 25th ult.–This change, we understand became necessary, in consequence of an order from Maj. Armstrong, Superintendent of the Removal of Indians, who has, by personal examination and inquiry, satisfied himself that the route via the Mouth of White river and Rock Roe, on the same river, is preferable, both as it regards economy and expedition, to any of the routes which have been proposed for the removal of the Indians from their country east of the Mississippi, to that west of that river.

The Snag Steam-boats, belonging to the Government, which have heretofore been employed in removing the obstructions to navigation in the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and which, from their light draught, are said to be well calculated for the service, are to be employed, we understand, in transporting the Emigrating Indians from their several points of debarkation on the Mississippi to Rock Roe, thereby dispensing, in a great measure, with the expense of employing other steam-boats to perform that service.

Arkansas Gazette, October 10, 1832


Interesting to Wagoners.–We understand Agents have been sent out in various directions, to employ Wagons and Teams of Horses and Oxen, to be engaged in transporting the Emigrating Choctaw Indians from their point of debarkation, at Rock Roe, on White river, to their destinations on the Arkansas and Red rivers. The teams, we understand, are to consist of five horses or six oxen, and be capable of hauling a weight of 3000 pounds over the ordinary roads of this Territory. For such teams, the price of $ 1 per day is paid, together with subsistence of the drivers and teams until their return. The number of teams required, we understand, will be upward of one hundred–most of which are already engaged.

Arkansas Gazette, October 10, 1832



During the late session of Congress, it will be recollected, an appropriation of $20,000 was made for the repair of this road, from this place to the St. Francis river; under the superintendence of Gov. POPE. Many, in different sections of the Territory, confidently expected, as they certainly had a right to, that immediately upon the return of the Governor, this work would be let out at public contract, thereby affording to all, a fair opportunity to share in this large public expenditure. But what must be their surprise, when they learn, that two days after his return to the Seat of Government, (some even say; and we have no hesitation in believing it to be true, that it was promised, by letter, before his return,) the Governor PRIVATELY let out the whole of this large and important contract, to three of his personal and political friends—Messrs. Rutherford, Gray and Rorer. We are far from censuring those gentlemen for taking this profitable contract, even privately—they have all of later, handled much of Uncle Sam’s money—they doubtless know the use of it, and the pleasure its possession affords. But Gov. POPE’s course is highly reprehensible—he has acted in bad faith, not only to the Government, but to the people of this Territory. –Was the Governor fearful, if he should give public notice, and proceed in the ordinary way to let out this contract, that the competition would be too great for his friends, and that, thereby, they would be deprived of the exquisite pleasure of pocketing this 20,000? We must think so. Nothing is more apparent, at this day, than the fact, that “kissing goes by favor.” We will leave the people to judge the motives of their good Governor, in entering into this private arrangement with his particular friends.

Arkansas Advocate, October 29, 1832


Subsistence of Indians.-We are indebted to Capt. Brown, Principal Disbursing Agent Choctaw Removal, for the following memoranda, in relation to the prices at which the contracts were taken, on the receipt of proposals on the 18th and 30th ult., for supplying Rations, Corn and Fodder, for the subsistence of the Emigrating Indians, and Forage for Teams, on the several routes leading through the Territory, to the New Choctaw Country west of the Mississippi.

The contracts for supplying the stands north of the Arkansas, from Rock Roe to Fort Smith, average as follows: For each Ration, $ 6 cents 9 mills. Corn, 89 cents per bushel. Fodder, 1 53 cents per 100 lbs.

The average for the stands south of the Arkansas, from Little Rock to Fort Towson, was-For each Ration, $ 6 cents 6 mills. Corn 1 18 3/4 cents per bushel. Fodder 2 40 cents per 100 lbs.

The average price at which the contracts were taken for supplying all the stands, both north and south of the Arkansas, was (rejecting fractions) as follows: For each Ration, $ 6 cents 6 mills. Corn, 1 07 cents per bushel. Fodder, 2 00 cents per 100 lbs.

It is gratifying to learn, that these contracts have all been taken by farmers and planters residing on the routes which they have contracted to furnish; and at prices (though lower than any of the preceding ones,) which will yield them a fair equivalent for their labor and the risk which they incur.

Arkansas Gazette, November 7, 1832


We are indebted, at a late hour yesterday, to the Secretary pro tem, of the Board, for the following proceedings of the TOWN COUNCIL OF LITTLE ROCK, held on Saturday last, for the purpose of taking the necessary precautionary steps to guard our Town against the ravages of the Cholera, in case it should be so unfortunate as to be visited by that fatal disease, and to provide the necessary means for nursing and administering to the comforts of such strangers as may be afflicted with it. It will be seen, that, among other precautionary measures, the Board have rented the house of Mr. N. W. Maynor, situate near a mile west of this Town, to be used as a CHOLERA HOSPITAL, to which all strangers who may be attacked with the disease are to be sent, and appointed a BOARD OF HEALTH, with power "to make such arrangements as they may deem proper for the health and safety of the Town."

Arkansas Gazette, November 7, 1832


Cholera at the Mouth of White river!

Within the last 10 or 12 days, there has been two cases of spasmodic Cholera at the Mouth of White river—both of which terminated fatally. The first death by this disease, was a man direct from Fort Smith. He had not been where any person had the Cholera, nor had there been a case of it at the Mouth of the river previous to his arrival there. The other, was a gentleman who came passenger in the steam-boat Volant, from New Orleans, and was awaiting a passage up the Mississippi. Is it not fair to conclude, as neither of these persons had been where this epidemic was prevailing, that the Cholera atmosphere is not far from us? We may therefore, expect it to make its appearance among us shortly.

Arkansas Advocate, November 7, 1832


Choctaw Emigrants.—We are informed, that about 22 hundred Emigrating Choctaws arrived at Memphis, on or about the 28th ult., and would embark on board some steam-boat, in a few days, for Rock Roe, on White river; where the U.S. Teams will receive them, and transport them to their new homes west of this territory.

Arkansas Advocate, November 7, 1832



Oct. 24.—Choctaw Nation.—Major Armstrong, the agent for removing the Choctaws, has arrived here from the nation, and informs us that about 2,300 Choctaws are now on their way to this place, and will probably arrive on the first of November.  Arrangements are made for their immediate transportation across the Mississippi, and their final settlement on the western frontier.  It is supposed that between 7 and 8,000 will remove this fall.

                We also learn from Maj. Armstrong, who passed by the Choctaw Council of Treaty, that up to the 18th ultimo, the day on which he left, the Treaty had not been finally ratified, but the prospect was still flattering.—Times.

Arkansas Advocate, November 7, 1832


Cholera.–On Wednesday evening last, considerable excitement was occasioned in our town, by reports brought by several teamsters and others from Frock Roe, that the Cholera had broken out and was raging with great violence among a party of near 500 Indians who had just arrived at that point, and that several deaths had occurred. The alarm, it seems, was so great there, as to produce a considerable panic among the teamsters who had charge of the U.S. wagons and teams, and among the owners and drivers of the private wagons and teams, collected at that place, for the purpose of transporting the Indians to their new homes. We are happy, however, to have it in our power to say, that subsequent advices from that quarter, leave no doubt that our first rumors greatly exaggerated the extent of the disease and its ravages, and give at least good grounds for hope, that the epidemic which has been raging there is not the Asiatic or Spasmodic Cholera. At all events, our last advices state, that it had considerably abated in its violence; and the attending physicians pronounce it perfectly under the control of medicine, when attended to in the first stages of the disease.

Immediately on receiving intelligence from Rock Roe, that the Cholera had broken out among the Indians, the Board of Health of this Town held a meeting, and appointed Dr. B. W. Lee to proceed to that place, with a view of examining into the character of the disease and making himself acquainted with the best mode of treating it. He left on Thursday evening last, and, on Monday evening, the Board received a partial report from him, accompanied by letters to himself from Drs. Fulton and Reyburn, who had had the care of the cases which had occurred there. They report that the disease has been violent and that several deaths have occurred [about 16 up to Saturday night last, among about 1000 Indians] among the women and children-but they were all undecided whether it is the Cholera Morbus, of a malignant grade, or the Spasmodic Cholera.-They, however, we think, incline to the opinion that [it] is the Cholera Morbus, in adults, and the Cholera Infantum, in children.

Dr. Lee, in his report to the Board, assures them, that, so far as he has seen or learned, "be the disease Spasmodic Cholera or Cholera Morbus of a malignant grade, that it is in most instances subject to the control of medicine."

It is most probable, be the disease what it may, that it has been produced by the crowded state of the Indians on board the steam-boats, and their sudden change of diet from fresh meats and corn, to salt port and wheat, flour, and that, too, probably eaten in a half-cooked state. As the disease was abating at our last advices, we hope that a few days will put us in possession of information that it has been entirely subdued.

There had been no case of the disease in any shape among the teamsters, or the gentlemen superintending the removal of the Indians.-Indeed, we have a letter from one of the teamsters, in which he says "We think there is no Cholera here"-and we have conversed with a person who left there on Sunday morning last, who says that all excitement had subsided, and that some of the teamsters, who had left when the panic first broke out, were returning to their duty.

Arkansas Gazette, November 14, 1832


The Emigrating Indians.-Our latest information from Rock Roe, the general rendezvous of the Emigrating Choctaws, is to Sunday morning last, at which time about 1000 of the emigrants had reached that point-upwards of 800 of whom came up on the steam-boats Reindeer and Harry Hill, and the remainder came through by land from Memphis, via the Military Road. Near 2000 more, under Col. Rector, landed on the west bank of the Mississippi, opposite Memphis, on the 4th inst., and had left for Rock Roe-about 1200 on the U.S. steam-boat Archimedes, and the remainder by land, with their horses, wagons, &c.-and it is probable that all reached that point on Sunday last.

It is not known with any degree of certainty at what time these emigrants may be looked for here; but, from the best information we can gain, we think they may be expected about the close of this week.

Arkansas Gazette, November 14, 1832


By reference to the proceedings of the Board of Health, it will be seen, that measures have been taken to prevent the Emigrating Indians from passing through this town, in the event of there being any cases of Cholera among them; and that Capt. BROWN took prompt steps to carry them into effect, by opening a road, leading from the river to the main road to the South, by which the Indians will be conducted-thereby relieving our citizens from the fear of the introduction of any infectious or contagious disease, which their passing through the streets of the town might naturally have excited.

Arkansas Gazette, November 14, 1832


The steam-boat Little Rock, Capt. Rudd, arrived here last evening, from Fort Gibson, and will leave, this morning, on her passage down the river.

Among the passengers on board of her, is our distinguished countryman Washington Irving, Esq., the accomplished author of the Sketch Book, &c. on his return to New-York, from a tour among the Indian tribes west of Arkansas.

Arkansas Gazette, November 14, 1832


Emigrating Choctaws

                A party of 450 Emigrating Choctaws, we are informed, arrived at Rock Roe, on White river, on board the steamer Reindeer, on the 6th inst., under the superintendence of Maj. ARMSTRONG, Choctaw Agent.  From Rock Roe, this party of Emigrants will proceed, in wagons, to the lands set apart for them by the Government, west of this Territory.  The Volant, we also learn, was hourly expected at Rock Roe, with about as many more emigrants.

                We much regret to learn, that the Asiatic or Spasmodic Cholera has made its appearance among this party of Emigrants.  On the night of their arrival at Rock Roe, 15 or 20 were attacked—8 of which number died in the course of the night and following day.  Later accounts report 10 deaths in all, and 25 or 30 new cases.

Arkansas Advocate, November 14, 1832


Later from Rock Roe. –There has been several letters received in town, within the last two or three days, from Rock Roe. Their contents we have been unable fully to learn. We are told, however, that there appears to be some difference of opinion as to the name of the disease which has prevailed, since Monday or Tuesday week, with so much fatality among the Emigrating Indians. One of the Agents, who is sometimes styled Doctor, calls it the common Cholera Morbus! but Doct. Reyburn, whose judgement in such matters, is entitled to equally as much, if not to more regard, unhesitatingly pronounces it Asiatic or Spasmodic Cholera.

                Since the arrival of the 450 Emigrants, on the 6th inst. 25 or 30 have died. So says rumor.

Rumor also says, that 20 or 21 hundred Emigrating Choctaws arrived at Rock Roe, on Friday last, and that there was considerable sickness among them.

Arkansas Advocate, November 14, 1832


The Little Rock Cholera Hospital!
The house procured by the Board of Health, as a Hospital, is the very worst selection, in our judgement, that could have been made. In the first place, it is not at all suitable—being a very disagreeable and uncomfortable house, totally unfit even for well persons to inhabit; and in the second place, it is in the heart of town, an objection, which all must admit to be a very serious

Instead of introducing disease among us; in our very families as it were—(the house selected as a Hospital, is not more than fifty yards from two dwelling houses, occupied by large families)—we had thought it was the duty of the Board of Health to adopt measures to protect our citizens, as far as possible, from the influence of all infectious and contagious diseases.

We hope the Board of Health will consider this matter at their next meeting.

Arkansas Advocate, November 14, 1832



Little Rock, Nov. 7, 1832.

Pursuant to a resolution of the Town Council of Little Rock, adopted at a meeting held on the 3d inst., appointing a Board of Health for said Town, the following named persons, appointed Members of that Board, by the resolution aforesaid, met, by agreement, at the room of Dr. B. W. Lee, viz: Doctors A. Sprague, B. W. Lee, and R. A. Watkins, and Wm. W. Stevenson and Wm. E. Woodruff, and organized the Board of Health, by the appointment of Wm. W. Stevenson to be President, and Wm. E. Woodruff, to be Secretary, of said board.

The following preamble and resolution was adopted, viz:

Whereas, the house procured by the Town Council as a Hospital, is deemed by this Board to be too remotely situated to be conveniently used for the purpose for which it was intended: It is therefore

Resolved, That B. W. Lee and Wm. E. Woodruff be appointed a committee, to make arrangements for, and superintend the erection of, a suitable temporary building, to be used as a Hospital for the reception and accommodation of all strangers and indigent persons, laboring under the Cholera, or any infectious or contagio9us disease, demanding the care and attention of this Board.

On motion, it was

Resolved, That Dr’s. Sprague, Lee, and Watkins be appointed a committee, to draft a suitable Address to the citizens of this Town and vicinity, admonishing them of the danger to which they would be exposed in the event of the appearance of the Cholera among us, and advising them as to the necessary steps to be taken to prevent the spreading of the disease, to avert its fatal effects, and which, in the opinion of this board, will be most conducive to the health and safety of the community.

Resolved, That Messrs. Stevenson and Watkins be appointed a committee, to visit the premises of the several house-keepers in this Town, for the purpose of ascertaining if there be any nuisances about them calculated to generate disease and endanger the health of the citizens and to order the removal of the same; and, in case of refusal, on the part of the persons about whose premises such nuisances shall be found, it shall be the duty of the committee to report such delinquents to the Town Council, to the end that they may be proceeded against pursuant to an ordinance of said Council, providing for the removal of nuisances in said Town.

The following preamble and resolution was adopted, viz.:

Whereas, in the event of the Cholera making its appearance among the Emigrating Indians, who are expected to cross Arkansas, in this vicinity, on their way to the west, their passing through the Town will be calculated, if not to spread the disease, at least to produce alarm and excitement among its citizens: Therefore, it is

Resolved, That Capt. J. Brown, Principal Disbursing Agent, Choctaw Removal, be respectfully requested, in the event of there being any cases of Cholera among said Emigrating Indians, to select some convenient route, other than the streets of this Town, for their transportation from the place of their landing on the south side of the Arkansas river to the main road leading to the south; and that he be further requested, to prevent, as far as practicable, straggling parties of said Emigrating Indians from visiting or passing through this Town. On motion, it was

Resolved, That the President of this Board present a copy of the foregoing preamble and resolution to Capt. Brown, and that he aid him in selecting said route and in procuring the assistance of the citizens to aid in opening the same. On motion, it was

Resolved, That the President, and, in the event of his absence, the Secretary, of this Board, be authorized to call special meetings of the Board, on the written application of any Member thereof, setting forth the necessity of such special meeting.

On motion, the Board then adjourned.

Thursday, Nov. 8, 1832

The board met, pursuant in adjournment-present: Wm. W. Stevenson, President, A. Sprague, B. W. Lee, R. A. Watkins, and Wm. E. Woodruff, Secretary,

On motion, it was

Resolved, That, in consequence of the receipt of authentic intelligence that the Cholera has broken out among the Emigrating Indians at Rock Roe, and it being deemed important that this Board should be possessed of the most accurate information in relation to the character of the disease, and the course of treatment, and its results there adopted, Dr. B. W. Lee, of this Board, is hereby appointed as a suitable person to proceed immediately to Rock Roe, and from thence report to this Board, as soon and as often as practicable, such information as he may there acquire in relation to that disease.

Resolved, That all the Physicians of this Town, be requested to report to the President or Secretary of this Board, every case of Spasmodic Cholera, or cases of suspicious character, which may come under their observation, as soon as practicable.

Messrs. Lee and Woodruff, from the committee appointed to make arrangements for the erection of a Cholera Hospital, reported, That, in lieu of building a house for that purpose, they have deemed it more experiment to rent a suitable building, and have accordingly rented the dwelling-house of Col. Brumback, situate near the State-house, together with the out-buildings attached thereto, at the rate of ten dollars per month, and to keep possession of the same from month to month as long as it shall be required, and recommended its use as a Hospital to this Board. Adopted.

On motion, the Board then adjourned.

Little Rock, Nov. 12, 1832

The Board of Health met pursuant to adjournment, present: William W. Stevenson, President, Wm. W. Woodruff, Secretary, and Drs. Sprague and Watkins.

The President reported, that he had performed the duty imposed on him by a resolution adopted at the meeting of the Board on the 8th inst., by handing a copy of said resolution to Capt. J. Brown, Principal Disbursing Ag’t , Choctaw Removal, and that Capt. Brown promptly complied with the request of the Board, by immediately employing laborers and opening a road on the eastern and southern sides of this Town, by means of which the Emigrating Indians can travel from the river to the main road leading to the south without passing through the Town and endangering the health of its citizens.

Messrs. Sprague and Watkins, from the committee appointed on the subject, reported the following Address, viz:


In consequence of the general and deep interest caused by the near approach of the Asiatic or Spasmodic Cholera, the Board of Health, appointed by the Town Council of Little Rock, in the exercise of the duties of their office, deem it incumbent on them to make public their views, and recommend that course which appears most proper for the preservation of the community from the ravages of that pestilence, which has visited, by its desolating course, most of our Atlantic and many of our inland cities, and spread terror and dismay through the whole western world.

Having been so far favored by exemption from its visitation, we are enabled to profit by the experience of other, and, by adopting such precautionary measures as by them have been found most efficient, greatly abate its fatality and disarm it of its terrors.

Among the numerous preventives most urgently recommended, are temperance, attention to cleanliness, diet, dress, and avoidance of excessive fatigue and exposure to the damp chills of the evening air.

Excessive fatigue predisposes to the contraction of diseases, particularly of this character, and should therefore, as far as possible, be avoided. Care should be taken to guard from cold the body, particularly the stomach, bowels and feet, which can be best done by wearing flannel next the skin.

This epidemic, from its commencement, in 1817, to the present time, a period of fifteen years, has marked the dissipated and dissolute as its peculiar prey. He who takes the inebriating cup rarely escapes.

The use of ardent spirits in any quantity has been reprehended by every medical man of reputation, who has written upon this subject.

The force of habit is so strong with wine, we presume, that they might be unable or unwilling to relinquish its use. As a substitute, we would recommend a tonic bitter, a watery infusion of vegetable tonics, as recommended by Dr. Rush. The above preparation we would recommend only to the habitually intemperate.

The diet recommended where this disease has been most prevalent, consists in beef, mutton, venison, veal and poultry, good ham, eggs, Irish potatoes, tea and coffee.

Fruits are prohibited as poisonous, and vegetables (potatoes and boiled onions excepted) as little less deleterious.

Cleanliness, which as before been barely mentioned, may require some explanation, as to its extent. Heads of families should attend to the divesting their premises of every thing which may tend to vitiate the atmosphere; their cellars made dry; out-houses purified; and, where practicable, every sleeping room furnished with fire.

We would repeat the necessity for keeping the feet dry and warm, and for avoiding exposure to rain and night air.

We would also recommend that night meetings and assemblies of every kind, for the present, be dispensed with.

No nostrum or medicine, while in health, should be taken as preventatives, as they only tend to irritate the bowels and predispose to this disease; but if a lax or disordered state of the bowels, the usual precursors of Spasmodic Cholera, appear, medical aid should immediately be obtained, as at this time, and at this time only, can remedies be administered with almost
certain success.

As this epidemic is confidently affirmed not to be contagious in its character, by every scientific man whose opportunities enable him to judge with accuracy, it is hoped that no one suffering an attack will be neglected through the timidity of those whose duty it may be to furnish every aid and comfort; but that the bonds of affection and friendship be drawn still more close, and every assistance and consolation afforded the sufferer, be he citizen or stranger.

Much may be done, and safely done, to mitigate the unavoidable suffering attendant on an attack of this disease.

Let every one faithfully and fearlessly perform his duties, relying with confidence on the approbation and protection of a superintending Providence.

Which address was read and unanimously adopted by the Board.

The Board then adjourned to Thursday evening next. W. W. Stevenson, Pres’t. Wm. E. Woodruff, Sec’y

Arkansas Gazette, November 14, 1832



Two parties of the Emigrating Choctaws, consisting of about 1400 souls, commenced arriving opposite this place, from Rock Roe, on Sunday last, and have now mostly came up. One of them is of the band or party of Col. David Fulsome, about 800 in number, in charge of Lieut. Jos. A. Phillips, U.S.A.; the other is that of Col. Greenwood Lefleur, about 600 in number, in charge of Col. Cross. They commenced crossing the Arkansas yesterday, and proceeding to an encampment about four or five miles south of this place, where they will remain a day or two for the stragglers, who have been delayed by sickness and other causes, to come up, and then proceed south to their new country in the neighborhood of the Kiamiche.

Two other parties, of Mushalatubba’s band, one of near 1100, in charge of Col. Rector, and another of about 900, in charge of Capt. PAGE, U.S.A., were expected to leave Rock Roe, on Monday or Tuesday, for Fort Smith, and are probably now on their journey.

Another party of upward of 2000 Choctaws, we understand, are expected at Rock Roe, about this time, in charge of Maj. F. W. Armstrong, Superintendent Removal of Choctaws west of the Mississippi. His brother, Wm. Armstrong, Esq. Superintendent of Choctaws east of the Mississippi, has been at Rock Roe, during the last 12 or 15 days, organizing the parties and superintending the departure of the Indians from that point.

Arkansas Gazette, November 21, 1832



There is now, we believe, no longer any doubt at the existence of the Spasmodic Cholera among the Emigrating Choctaw Indians now proceeding through this Territory to their country west of Arkansas. It has made its appearance, we believe, in all the parties that we have heard from, and has been attended with great fatality to the Indians-but has, in no instance, we understand, attacked any of the white persons engaged in their removal. We have not been able to obtain any correct information as to the number that have fallen victims to it, but think we speak within bounds in putting it down at 50 or 60. Dr. Reyburn, who has attended in a great number of cases, thinks about one dies of every four or five that are attacked.-Our readers are referred to the report of Dr. Lee, to the Board of Health of this Town, for some interesting and valuable information in relation to this disease, which he has collected during his intercourse with the Indians since their arrival at Rock Roe.

It gives us pleasure to learn, that no new case of Cholera has appeared among the Indians now in this vicinity, since Sunday night, which authorizes us to indulge a hope that it is about to cease its ravages. Some few cases of ague and fever and intermittent fever have occurred among them within the last few days, which the medical gentlemen attending them consider a strong indication of the abatement of the Cholera, and of returning health.

We have not heard of the slightest indication of the disease in this town, and so far as we can learn, the approach of the Indians creates no alarm among our citizens.

Arkansas Gazette, November 21, 1832



Extract of a letter to the Editor, from a gentleman at Greenock, Crittenden Co., dated 9th instant.

"Since my letter by the last mail, James Livingston, Esq., Frederick Shoults, and William Titas, have died of Cholera-all on the point opposite Memphis-It is thought that they took it from the Emigrating Indians, who are dying rapidly of Cholera. Every account I get from the river, is distressing. The steam-boats appear to be a reservoir for the disease."

Arkansas Gazette, November 21, 1832


Memphis, Nov. 6

Cholera.-Several cases have been reported at the wood yards on the Mississippi, 20 or 30 miles below Memphis. As yet, we have no local case in town, nor have any cases been left from steam-boats within the last week. Our citizens continue to enjoy uninterrupted health.

About two thousand four hundred of the Choctaw Indians, under the direction of Major Armstrong, arrived at Fort Pickering, two miles below this place, a few days ago, on their way to their new homes, west of Arkansas Territory. The Indians were all in fine health, and seemed delighted at the idea of shortly reaching their allotted country. Their favorite chief, Fulsome, was of the company. We regret, that the late heavy rains have so inundated the swamp, as to render their passage thro’ to the St. Francis river extremely unpleasant.

Arkansas Gazette, November 21, 1832


Emigrating Indians

A party of six hundred Emigrating Choctaws, (Col. Greenwood Laflore’s party,) under the direction of Capt. Cross, Special Agent, arrived at Rorer’s ferry, on the north bank of the Arkansas, on Sunday last.  They crossed the river yesterday, and camped five miles south of this place last night.  This party is accompanied by Dr. Nutt, of Vicksburg, in the capacity of Surgeon.  We understand he will leave the party here, and return to Vicksburg.

Another party of eight hundred, (Col. David Folsom’s party,) under the superintendence of Lieut. Phillips, U.S.A. arrived on the opposite bank of the river, on Monday and Tuesday last.  This party, we are informed, will cross the river today, and camp five or six miles south of this to night.  Dr. Reyburn of this town is Surgeon to this detachment.

The party in charge of Col. Rector, consisting of about 19 hundred, left Rock Roe on Friday last, for Fort Smith.  They will pass by the way of the cross-roads, 25 miles north of this.  This party lay at Mrs. Black’s on Monday night.

Arkansas Advocate, November 21, 1832


Cholera among the Emigrating Indians. –We are happy to learn, that the Cholera has considerably abated, within the last 8 or 10 days, among the Emigrating Indians. But few cases now occur. The number of deaths, we have been unable to learn—but, from all the information we can gather, they do not exceed one hundred. Many have fallen victims to their own obstinacy—refusing to take medicine, or to avail themselves of that aid, which the medical gentlemen who accompany them, were employed to render. They cannot be prevailed upon to attend to the first appearance of the disease, or what is termed the premonitory symptoms. Very few cases, we are informed, have terminated fatally, where medicine was administered in the incipient stage of the disease. Ever thing taken into consideration—several hundred huddled together for days in a small steam-boat, their exposure to the inclemency of the weather &c—we think this epidemic has been much less fatal than could have been expected.

Arkansas Advocate, November 21, 1832


Notice to bidders for Indian Rations.

Persons making bids for supplying Rations, or Beef, under the notice for proposals, dated the 18th of August last, [see “proposals for Beef” 4th column, 4th page], are informed that the Rations; or Beef, as therein intimated, will not be required earlier than February next, 1833; hence by prolonging the period of first delivery, the period when the whole of the Rations, or Beef, will be called for, is necessarily prolonged, say to the first day of July, 1833.

                Thirty days notice will be given to contractors, prior to the first delivery of Rations, or Beef, at the depots contracted for.

                J. Brown, Capt. U.S.A.,

                Prin. Dis. Agt. Choctaw Removal.

Wednesday morning, Nov. 21, 1832.

Arkansas Advocate, November 21, 1832



Little Rock, Monday, Nov. 19, 1832

The Board of Health met pursuant to adjournment-present: Wm. W. Stevenson, President, A. Sprague; B. W. Lee, and Wm. E. Woodruff, Secretary.

Dr. Lee, who had been delegated by this Board, to visit Rock Roe, for the purpose of making observations on the character of the disease raging among the Emigrating Indians at that place, presented the following report; which was read, and ordered to be spread on the Minutes, viz:

To the Board of Health of the Town of Little Rock

GENTLEMEN-The undersigned begs leave to report, that, since his last report, he has had sufficient opportunity to examine into the nature of the disease now raging among the Emigrating Choctaws at Rock Roe, and offers for the consideration of the Board all his individual observation, as well as that of Drs. Reyburn and Fulton, on the treatment of the epidemic; and, although it will not be in his power to offer any thing new in the treatment of the disease, yet it gives him great pleasure to state that he has seen the practice of others put in successful operation.

The Spasmodic Cholera made its first appearance amongst the Indians, on board the steamer Reindeer, on the 3d inst.; cases occurred up to the 5th, when the boat landed at the mouth of Rock Roe. There were only one or two sick on the 5th; on the 8th, the sic report was swelled to 18 and 5 deaths; on the 7th, 24 new cases 5 deaths; on the 8th, 27 new cases 4 deaths; on the 9th, not a single new case; on the 10th, 19 new cases 3 deaths; on the 11th, 12 cases and 2 deaths; on the 12th 17 cases 2 deaths; on the 13th, 15 cases and 1 death; on the 14th, 5 deaths; on the 15th, 9 new cases, deaths not known.

The Board will discover that there was an astonishing decline in the number of deaths, on the 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th, and the undersigned begs leave to account for it in this manner:–From the settled state of the weather, the Indians became more comfortable in their camps; the panic became excessive and the least premonition of cholera, put the attendance of the medical gentlemen into requisition. Thus, by the timely administration of medicine, many lives were saved. We also see in the above report of cases, the cholera has obeyed the same law with the Indians, that it invariably observes with the whites. For two or three days it was rife and malignant. On the 9th, no deaths, no cases. On the 15th, the detachment of Capt. Irwin had but 2 cases, one collapsed, the other premonitory, neither fatal. Capt. Cross’s detachment of 600 landed on the 12th from the steamer Harry Hill, with the cholera on board. The number of cases on the passage or since I have been unable to learn, but am informed that the disease prevailed principally with the women and children. The note book of Drs. Reyburn and Fulton shows the same result. This is accounted for, by the fact that a large majority of the men were sent through by land, and the women and children shipped on steam-boats. But admitting that there were a majority of cases among this class of Indians, yet I feel that nothing flattering can be adduced from this; for, suppose the Mississippi river to be the cholera region, which it certainly is, those women and children were as much or more exposed than the men. In addition to that, they indulged in the various excitants of cholera, on the Mississippi, which the up-country so amply affords, such as fruits, vegetables, &c., and perhaps the Mississippi water may have some tendency to affect the bowels. But I believe that I may hazard this assertion, that if the cases were more numerous among the women, yet there was not the same fatality-at least an average of two and a half or three in favor of the women.

The undersigned is aware, that he could swell this report to an unreasonable length, were he to permit himself, but he deems it more important to proceed to the consideration of the disease in question. That the Spasmodic Cholera is at Rock Roe, and will traverse this Territory, no man can doubt; and that it is one of the most appalling scourges that has ever afflicted society, the experience of the last year will prove; but it behooves us as men and christians to meet it firmly. It will not admit of procrastination. An hour lost in cholera, is worth a world of wealth. Send for your medical attendant in time. Do not tamper with yourself, and the disease is manageable. The undersigned feels bold to say to the Board, that he has seen no case, where there was premonition, (he means those cases that have terminated fatally.) Dr. Fulton has seen none, and I think Dr. Reyburn has reported none. I would not be understood to say, that premonitions never occur. We have the authority of too many distinguished medical men, and whose opinions are entitled to too much respect, to doubt the truth, that cholera is frequently preceded by nausea, diarrhoea, &c., but of the cases under my observation, terminating fatally, no such symptoms preceded the disease. The account of the case is generally this: he was well last night, ate heartily, and was taken about mid-night or after. He will give the Board a case which he attended closely. The subject was a sprightly young man, about 24 years of age, temperate and cleanly in his habits. On the evening of the 10th, he was well and lively, (for he spent some time with Dr. R. on the banks of White river.) He ate his supper as usual, and was taken after mid-night. I saw him on Sunday morning, and the expression of that poor fellow’s face can never be erased from my mind; and the attempt that I shall make at the description of the symptoms may be considered as adapted to the generality of the cases. Drs.
Reyburn, Fulton and myself, were called about 3 o’clock, to the patient in question. He was lying on his blanket, with his eyes looking wild and unnatural, the whites of them injected with a dark gromous blood; they were as much sunken as usually happens on the 19th or 21st day of fever, surrounded with a blue or lead colored circle; his mouth had the same bluish tinge; his arms were as cold as marble; the skin shrivelled; the fingers showing a recession of blood, for they were shrunken, nails deep blue, wrist pulseless, one hand and arm distorted with spasm, great action of the diaphragm, and the bowels contracted and sunken until they assumed the appearance of being conjoined to the spine; legs cold and cramped, slight nausea, but no dysentery; entire suppression of urine (a symptom that has occurred in every case that I have seen); the dejections that had taken place were compared to hominy water; the voice low and whispering, but he would occasionally shriek as loud and fiercely as a maniac; the tongue perfectly white and cold; the thirst intense and ungovernable. The medical gentlemen and myself considered the case so hopeless that we thought it unadvisable to attempt any thing; but his friends appeared anxious that we should endeavor to relieve him.

Dr. Reyburn attempted to cup the epigastrum, but the recession of blood had been so perfect that none followed the scarification.-The undersigned made an effort, but was unsuccessful. We endeavored to vomit him by salt and water, but failed. We bathed his legs and arms with hot brandy, and gave him 3 drops of croton tiglium oil, blistered the stomach, and directed his bowels and legs rubbed with flannel and brandy. We called in the evening, and gave calomel and opium, with no expectation of relieving him. There was no change for the better, and he died about 3 o'clock on the morning of the 12th.

The undersigned would remark, that a large majority of the deaths occurred with those who, from ignorance or obstanacy, refused medical aid; and he is satisfied that the treatment of the disease adopted at Rock Roe, which, with little variation, is that recommended by Dr. Chapman, is the correct practice.

In the insipient stage, the abstraction of blood from the arm, cups to the epigastrum, calomel combined with opium in doses corresponding with the violence of the attack and followed by castor oil, was all that was necessary; we had rarely to resort to other remedies.

In the collapsed stage, the salt emetic was the first remedy; and if reaction was produced, we resorted to the lancet or cups, or to both. Calomel and opium with blisters and stimulating embrocations were the principal remedies used, and were beyond all expectation successful, as the report of the above cases will show.

The undersigned considers it unnecessary to touch on the theories of the disease, which have been filling the journals for the last 18 months. He was sent by the Board of Health to observe the disease as it really was, and not to confound with his speculations any correct view that may have been taken of the disease. Dr. Chapman, in the opinion of the undersigned, comprehended more, in his letter on Cholera, than any many who has ever written. He deems it proper to remark, in conclusion, that Cholera is remediable, when taken in time; and that calomel, opium and blood letting, is our sheet anchor.

He takes this public manner of returning his thanks to Maj. Langham, the Assistant Special Agent, and Doctors Reyburn and Fulton, for their gentlemanly deportment in offering the Board of Health of Little Rock, through their Agent, every facility for the prosecution of his mission. Respectfully, BUSHROD W. LEE.

Little Rock, Nov. 16, 1832.

The Board then adjourned.



Arkansas Gazette, November 21, 1832


The Emigrating Indians.-Maj. F. W. Armstrong, Superintendent Choctaw Removal west of the Mississippi, arrived at Rock Roe, a few days since, from Vicksburg, with the steam-boats Reindeer, Volant, Thomas Yeatman and Archimedes, on board of which were about 1800 Emigrating Choctaw Indians; and last evening, reached the opposite side of the river from this place, with them, together with a considerable number of stragglers from other parties whom he has picked up on the road, increasing the party now with him to near 2000. They commenced crossing last evening, and will probably not all get over until to-morrow. These Indians are all bound for that portion of the new Choctaw country situate on Red river, in the vicinity of the Kiamiche. It gives us pleasure to learn, that they are perfectly healthy.

All the Indians have left Rock Roe, and this, we understand, is the last party that will emigrate on this route during the present season.

Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1832


The Cholera.-It gives us pleasure to assure our country friends, that our town continues to be perfectly healthy, and that no case of Cholera has made its appearance in it. Some alarm was excited previous to the arrival of the Emigrating Indians; but since a large portion of them have passed through, without spreading the disease, it has entirely subdued, and many now doubt whether it has ever prevailed among them to any thing like the extent that was reported.

A case of Cholera was reported across the river in this vicinity a few days ago, but the circumstances of it were such as to warrant at least a doubt of its being the genuine disease–or that it was not such a one as almost any body could produce by a continued state of intemperance and imprudence. The individual attacked, was at Rock Roe about two weeks since, and has been at least partially intoxicated a considerable portion of the time since his return. Feeling unwell one evening in the latter part of last week, he took a large dose of calomel, and shortly afterwards a goodly portion of whiskey on top of it. These not producing the desired effect, a large dose of castor oil was taken. In the course of the following night, he was violently attacked with symptoms strongly resembling those of Cholera. A physician was procured as soon as possible, who found the patient in a very critical situation; but, by the timely application of active medicines, he was relieved, and his since, we believe entirely recovered. This is the only case we have heard of in our vicinity.

Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1832


Contracts for subsistence
of Indians. –We are informed, that contracts for the delivery of Rations, at the several depots, as below, were closed on Thursday last, 22d inst. at the following prices per ration, viz:

For the ration at the depot near Fort Towson and Horse Prairie, eight cents;
For the ration at the depot near Fort Smith, five cents nine mills;

For the ration at the depot at the Seneca Agency, for the Senecas, six and three-quarter cents.

Nearly a million of rations were put under contract, and at an average of seven cents one mill per ration.

The successful competitors, we are gratified to learn, are all farmers and presidents of the Territory. 

Arkansas Advocate,
November 28, 1832


Emigrating Choctaws.

A letter to the Editor, from a friend at the Post of Arkansas, under date of Nov. 23, says:–

“It was stated here on Monday, that the steamer Reindeer, and the other boats in the employ of the government, passed the Mouth of White river, on Sunday, with the remainder of the Emigrating Indians.”

                A letter to the Editor, from below, says: 
“The Reindeer will pass up to the Rock in a few days.”

Arkansas Advocate, November 28, 1832


Vicksburg (Miss), November 8

                The detachment of Choctaw Indians, the arrival of which we mentioned some time since, departed last week for their country west of the Mississippi.  Another amounting totwo thousand has arrived this week, and will depart in a few days.

Arkansas Advocate, November 28, 1832



Whose arrival at this vicinity, under the superintendence of Maj. F. W. Armstrong, we noticed in our last paper, after being organized into three detachments of about 600 each, for the purpose of facilitating their removal, left here, last week, for their country on Red river, in the following order:

A detachment of Koonches, under the Principal Chief Ne-ti-ca-che, left on Wednesday, in charge of Lieut. Montgomery, U.S.A.;

Another, of Six Town Indians, in charge of Lieut. Van Horne, U.S.A., left on Thursday; and

Another, of the Chickasaw-haas, Col. Nail, leader, left on Friday, in charge of Lieut. Simonton, U.S.A.

All the foregoing Indians are from Ne-ti-ca-che's district, in the south-western part of the Old Cherokee [sic] Nation east of the Mississippi. There had been considerable sickness among them, previous to reaching this place, and 19 had died since leaving Rock Roe; but the survivors of those who had been ill had mostly become convalescent, and the general health of the several parties very much improved, previous to leaving here for the south.

Capt. Page, U.S.A., with about 1200 Indians and 80 wagons, of Col. Rector's party, who came through the Mississippi swamp from Memphis, and who design locating in the vicinity of the Arkansas, are probably now within about 75 miles of Fort Smith.

We understand it is expected that all the Choctaws who design emigrating this year, will be in their new country by Christmas.

Maj. Armstrong left here on Sunday last, for Fort Smith, for the purpose of distributing the annuity goods which the Choctaws are entitled to under the treaty.

Arkansas Gazette, December 5, 1832


Emigrating Choctaws

Maj. Armstrong, Choctaw Agent, arrived on the north bank of the Arkansas on Tuesday last, 27th ult., with a party of 18 hundred Emigrating Choctaws.  This party has since crossed the Arkansas, and taken up the line of march for the new Choctaw country.  This is the last party, we are told, that will emigrate the present season.

Arkansas Advocate, December 5, 1832



 A party of upwards of 500 Emigrating Choctaw Indians, in charge of Col. Rector, passed up through the Big Prairie, a day or two ago, on their way to Fort Smith.

Arkansas Gazette, January 9, 1833


Lieuts. Van Horne, Simonton, and Montgomery, U.S.A., and Maj. Campbell and Mr. Somerville, who passed through this place, some weeks since, in charge of companies of Emigrating Choctaw Indians, having discharged the duties with which they were entrusted, reached this place, last week, on their return to their respective posts and residences.

Arkansas Gazette, January 9, 1833


Indian Rations.–We
inadvertently omitted last week, to call the attention of our farmers, &c. to the advertisement of Capt. Brown, giving notice that he will receive proposals, until the 16th May next, for the delivery of 738,000 Indian rations at the several depots in the Choctaw country west of Arkansas.–The advertisement will be found on our fourth page to-day.

Arkansas Gazette, March 13, 1833


Indian Rations.-The proposals for supplying Indian Rations at all the depots in the New Choctaw country, agreeable to Capt. Brown's advertisement of the 1st March last, were opened on Thursday last, and the contracts taken at rates quite satisfactory to all concerned. The competition was large, and from distant sections of the Territory, and some bids were received from gentlemen from the south-western quarter of the State of Missouri. The offers were independent, and the furnishing is in good substantial hands. We understand the average price of the rations under these contracts, are a shade higher than those let in November last, which was at 7 cents. The aggregate of the late contracts amounts to about $60,000, and the whole have been taken by citizens of the Territory.

Arkansas Gazette, May 22, 1833


Indian Rations.–The attention of our farmers and citizens is called to Capt. Brown's advertisement, in this day's paper, giving notice that he will receive proposals, until the 5th September next, for 441,640 Indian Rations, to be delivered at the several issuing depots in the new Choctaw country west of Arkansas.

Arkansas Gazette, July 3, 1833


Provisions for Indians.–We understand that private contracts have been made by Col. W. Rector, Assistant Agent for Removal of Indians, for furnishing provisions for the Emigrating Choctaws this season, to commence on the 4th of next month. Notice would have been given for public contracts, but for the detention or miscarriage of the requisition from Maj. Armstrong, the Superintendent of Removal of Indians West of the Mississippi. We are also informed, that the course which Col. Rector has been under the necessity of adopting, is authorized by a letter received from him, by last mail, from the Commissary General of Subsistence, in which it is recommended.

We also understand, that a considerable portion of the Wagons and Teams sold at this place, last month, by Capt. Brown, will shortly be offered employment in the transportation of the Emigrating Choctaws, to commence at Rock Roe on the 1st of November.

Arkansas Gazette, October 16, 1833


Emigrating Indians.-By a gentleman from Memphis, we learn, that about 1500 emigrating Choctaws crossed the Mississippi, at that place, on Thursday last, on their journey to the west.

A Deputation of Chickasaws, with their Agent, Col. Reynolds, crossed the Mississippi, on the same day, on their way to select a country west of Arkansas, for the future residence of that nation.

Arkansas Gazette, November 6, 1833


The Columbus (Miss.) paper, of 15th ult. says that some 5000 or 6000 Choctaw Indians, residing in the Southern District of the old Nation, refuse to remove to the west, in accordance with the treaty.

Arkansas Gazette, November 13, 1833


More Indian Rations.-The attention of contractors is called to Capt. Brown's advertisement in a subsequent column, for receiving proposals, until 2d January next, for furnishing rations to the Choctaw Indians at the several issuing depots west of Arkansas.

Arkansas Gazette, November 13, 1833


Emigrating Choctaws.-By Col. W. Rector, Assistant Emigrating Agent Removal of Indians, who arrived on Monday, from Rock Roe, we learn, that about 300 Choctaw emigrants arrived at that place before he left, and that 500 more were expected there by Monday evening. The wagons and teams were already there to transport them to the west, so soon as the whole party should come up. A party of about 600 is expected to reach here about Sunday next, for the Kiamiche, and another party will proceed up, via the Cross Roads, 25 miles north of this place, 25 miles north of this place, to Fort Smith, and settle on the north side of the Arkansas, above that place.

Arkansas Gazette, November 13, 1833


The Columbus (Miss.) paper, of 15th ult. says that some 5000 or 6000 Choctaw Indians, residing in the Southern District of the old Nation, refuse to remove to the west, in accordance with the treaty.

Arkansas Gazette, November 13, 1833


Emigrating Choctaws.-About 600 of these Indians have crossed the Arkansas, at this place, during the last two days, on their way to their new homes in the vicinity of the Kiamiche. They are conducted by Capt. PAGE, U.S.A.

Arkansas Gazette, November 29, 1833


Emigrating Choctaws–The Helena Herald, of 28th ult., says that about 100 emigrating Choctaw Indians crossed the Mississippi, at that place, on the preceding Saturday, on their way to their new country west of Arkansas.

Arkansas Gazette, December 11, 1833


It is high time, we think, that some other arrangement be made, to insure a more regular receipt of the mail from Memphis. There is defalcation and mismanagement somewhere in the present one. If a body of Indians, (men, women and children), with some 200 ponies, can pass through the Mississippi swamp in the course of two or three days, (which has been the case within the last two or three weeks), we can see no good reason why the mail cannot be carried through with regularity. But so it is-travelers daily pass through; and yet the mails cannot, because the swamps are impassable! The fact is, there is a lack of energy and perseverance on the part of those now engaged in carrying this mail, otherwise it would be more regular. The late contractor was discharged, in consequence of failing to perform his duty-but we do not perceive that his successor has mended the matter. The mail is just as irregular now as it was before his discharge. A new change, we imagine, will have to be made, before the public will be benefited. The route, we know, is a difficult one to perform; but, with ample compensation, (and no prudent man would undertake it unless well paid for his labor and risk), every obstacle can be surmounted, if energy and good management be used.

There have been so many failures of this mail latterly, that we do not know how many are due. They, however, we believe, amount to six or eight-enough, we hope, to authorize the Postmaster at Memphis to freight a steam-boat around with them.

One arrived on Saturday last, but brought nothing later than we received by that of the Monday previous. None arrived yesterday.

Arkansas Gazette, March 3, 1835



It would appear, by the annexed extract from the Texas Telegraph, that the people of that province are not particularly in favor of having more Indian neighbors:

"Those tribes are the same which have been removed to the 'far west' by the government of the United States. We noticed, in a conspicuous paper, and which has always advocated the cause of Texas, that in speaking of the Seminole war, and its consequent disasters, it said it clearly pointed out the necessity of removing the Indians west of the Mississippi. If the Indians east of that river are sufficiently formidable to hold the citizens in dread, in a country, too abundantly furnished with every means of defence, the citizens of Texas and the western states of Mexico surely have reason to apprehend hostilities from al the Indian tribes which have, from time to time, been sent on to their borders, unless the government of the United States take precautionary measures for keeping them in check. This they are in duty bound by the treaty to do, as well as to protect its own citizen on the frontiers, and which, we consider, the only and primary object of the military movements under the direction of General Gaines on the eastern borders of this country."

Arkansas Gazette, November 22, 1836


More Choctaw Emigrants.-The s.b. Erin passed up yesterday, with 200 Choctaw emigrants, from the old nation east, under the charge of Maj. Cross, on their way to their new homes west.

Arkansas Gazette, May 9, 1838


Indians.–Our friend, Hon. J. J. McRea, late Speak of the House of Representatives in Mississippi, came up yesterday, on the Swallow, with about one hundred Indians in charge, en route to Fort Coffee.

Arkansas Gazette, May 24, 1849

Updated 5.25.2010