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Sequoyah Research Center

Seminole Removal Chronicle, 1832-1843

Seminole Removal Chronicle, 1832-1843 


 A delegation of Seminole Indians, under the superintendence and direction of Maj. PHAGAN, arrived at this place on Sunday last, on their way to examine the lands west of this Territory, to find, if possible, a suitable location for their tribe.

Arkansas Advocate, November 7, 1832

    A delegation of the Seminole Indians of Florida, under the direction of Maj. Fagan, came up in the steamer Little Rock, on their way to explore the country west of Arkansas, with the view of selecting a new residence, near the Creeks, to which nation they belong, for the future homes of their tribe. They purchased horses at this place, and left, yesterday morning, for the west, and intend proceeding direct to Fort Gibson.

Arkansas Gazette, November 7, 1832



The Seminole Indians.–A delegation of this nation, in charge of Major Phagan, arrived at this place, yesterday morning, in the steam-boat Wyoming, on their return to Florida. They have been engaged, for some months past, in exploring the country west of Arkansas, for the purpose of selecting a spot for the future home of their nation. We understand they have found an unappropriated tract of country between the Arkansas and Canadian rivers, and west of the Cherokee lands, with which they are pleased, and which they design recommending to their brethren for their permanent homes.

Arkansas Gazette, April 3, 1833


The steamer Wyoming, Grant, in descending the Arkansas, on Sunday night last, about 12 or 14 miles below Crawford C.H., came in contact with the steamer Arkansaw, Thompson, with a full head of steam on. The bow of the Arkansaw struck the Wyoming just forward of the larboard wheel, carrying away the cook's room and guards, and considerably injuring the upper dec,, &c. &c. The hull was uninjured. The Arkansaw received no damage.

Arkansas Gazette, April 3, 1833



It is high time, we think, that some other arrangement be made, to insure a more regular receipt of the mail from Memphis. There is defalcation and mismanagement somewhere in the present one. If a body of Indians, (men, women and children), with some 200 ponies, can pass through the Mississippi swamp in the course of two or three days, (which has been the case within the last two or three weeks), we can see no good reason why the mail cannot be carried through with regularity. But so it is-travelers daily pass through; and yet the mails cannot, because the swamps are impassable! The fact is, there is a lack of energy and perseverance on the part of those now engaged in carrying this mail, otherwise it would be more regular. The late contractor was discharged, in consequence of failing to perform his duty-but we do not perceive that his successor has mended the matter. The mail is just as irregular now as it was before his discharge. A new change, we imagine, will have to be made, before the public will be benefited. The route, we know, is a difficult one to perform; but, with ample compensation, (and no prudent man would undertake it unless well paid for his labor and risk), every obstacle can be surmounted, if energy and good management be used.

There have been so many failures of this mail latterly, that we do not know how many are due. They, however, we believe, amount to six or eight-enough, we hope, to authorize the Postmaster at Memphis to freight a steam-boat around with them.

One arrived on Saturday last, but brought nothing later than we received by that of the Monday previous. None arrived yesterday.

Arkansas Gazette, March 3, 1835



Indian disturbances in Florida.-The papers received by us, last evening, from New-Orleans, contain accounts of serious disturbances having broken out among the Seminole Indians, who, it appears, are opposed to removing, and have committed several depredations on the inhabitants. On the 19th ult. they attacked a company of volunteers, under Capt. McLemore, at Payne's Prairie, and succeeded in taking all the baggage, killing four men and wounding eight or ten more. On the following day, they were overtaken by another company of volunteers, who surrounded and nearly destroyed the whole party, with the loss of one killed and 3 wounded. A letter from Head-quarters at Mickanopy, dated 21stult., says-"The whole country in this quarter is ruined-the houses in ashes-the women and children in forts, and the men under arms."

Arkansas Gazette, January 12, 1836

The s.b. Arkansaw Capt. Halderman, arrived this morning, from New Orleans, loaded to her guards and literally crammed full of passengers.  To the politeness of Mr. Baldwin, one of her pilots, we are indebted for New Orleans papers of the 22d and 23d alt, from which we have made a few interesting selections.

These papers contain nothing from Florida. - There was a rumor in the city, just before the boat left, that General Scott had succeeded in effecting a treaty with the Seminole Indians; and Capt. Halderman informs us, that a passenger landed at the mouth of White river, from the s.b. Vandalin, (which left New Orleans one day after the Arkansaw), who reported that 500 Seminoles arrived before she left, and that the s.b. Compromise had been chartered to bring them to this place.  If this be true, we may look for them in a few days, and the probability is, that the stage of the river will be such that they will proceed to their destination without any detention. 

Arkansas Gazette, May 3, 1836


The Steamboat Compromise arrived here on Thursday last, having on board about 400 Seminoles, men, women,  & children, under the charge of Lieut. Harris, U. States’ Agent, and left on Saturday for the purpose of carrying them to the place of their destination in the country assigned them in the west.

Arkansas Times, May 9, 1836

The steamer Compromise passed up the river, from this place on Saturday last, with upwards of 400 emigrating Seminoles - being the neutral Indians of Florida, under the charge of Lieut, MEAD, U.S. Army.

Arkansas Gazette, May 10, 1836

It would appear, by the annexed extract from the Texas Telegraph, that the people of that province are not particularly in favor of having more Indian neighbors:

     "Those tribes are the same which have been removed to the 'far west' by the government of the United States. We noticed, in a conspicuous paper, and which has always advocated the cause
of Texas, that in speaking of the Seminole war, and its consequent disasters, it said it clearly pointed out the necessity of removing the Indians west of the Mississippi. If the Indians east of that river are sufficiently formidable to hold the citizens in dread, in a country, too abundantly furnished with every means of defence, the citizens of Texas and the western states of Mexico surely have reason to apprehend hostilities from al the Indian tribes which have, from time to time, been sent on to their borders, unless the government of the United States take precautionary measures for keeping them in check. This they are in duty bound by the treaty to do, as well as to protect its own citizen on the frontiers, and which, we consider, the only and primary object of the military movements under the direction of General Gaines on the eastern borders of this country."

Arkansas Gazette, November 22, 1836



    The New Orleans Courier says "two hundred Seminole Indians - men, women, and children - arrived from Pass Christian, under the charge of Lt. Reynolds, the agent of the government for the removal of the Indians, this morning, and are quartered at the barracks below the city.  There are now 450 of this tribe at the barracks. 

Vicksburg Daily Register, Tuesday Evening, March 20, 1838. 

  The Seminoles - The New Orleans papers of the 16th inst., announce the arrival at that port of Lieut. Reynolds, with 215 Seminole Indians, among whom are the following noted leaders: Micanopy, King Phillip, Cloud, Co-a-hajo - all principal chiefs.  There were, at the latest dates, about 450 of these Indians quartered near New Orleans, and may soon be expected up the Arkansas, on their way to their new homes. 

Arkansas Gazette, March 28, 1838.

Emigrating Seminoles - The Steamboat Renown passed up on Saturday with about 500 Seminoles.

Arkansas Times & Advocate - May 28, 1838.

    The Seminoles are coming - The s.b. Renown, Capt. McGuire, arrived from N. Orleans, on Saturday evening last, and passed up , same night, with 455 Seminole Indians, from Florida, in charge of Lieut. Reynolds, U.S.A.   They belong to Micanopy’s band, and another detachment of the same tribe, together with the old Chief, may be looked for daily, on board the s.b South Alabama. Among those who have passed up, are about 150 Spanish Indians, or Spaniards who have intermarried with the Seminoles. Take the whole as a body, it is the most dirty, naked, and squalid one that we have seen. Armed sentries of U.S. soldiers were stationed in the different parts of the boat, and not an Indian was permitted to step ashore during the few hours the boat laid at our landing.

Arkansas Gazette, May 30, 1838.

More Seminoles.-About 700 Seminole Indians, from Florida, arrived at the Fourche bar, about seven miles below town, on the s.b. South Alabama, from New-Orleans, last week, and remained there until Monday, the water being too low for the boat to come up. The Indians were then taken on board the Liverpool and Itasca, each with two keel-boats in tow, and proceeded up the river.

The officers in charge of the party are Lieuts. Reynolds and Terry, U.S.A., and a small detachment of U.S. troops.

These Indians are a part of the band of the noted Chief Micanopy, who accompanies them, as does Cloud and Nocosaola, two other noted chiefs. Near one third of the party are negroes, who appear to have been reared among them.

Arkansas Gazette, June 2, 1838

More Seminoles - The steam-boat Mount Pleasant brought up 117 Seminoles, from Florida.  They were brought up from New Orleans on the steam-boat Ozark, and after the sinking of that boat, were transferred to the Mount Pleasant, and arrived here on Monday evening.  We understand they were very serviceable in saving the cargo of the Ozark.  Much of it would have been lost but for the aid afforded by them.  The Indians were transferred to the steamboat Fox, on yesterday morning, and have proceeded up river.

Arkansas Gazette, June 13, 1838


More Seminoles.-The s.b. Livingston passed up, from new-Orleans, on Saturday night last, with about 400 Seminole Indians, from Florida. The officer in charge of them is Capt. Morrison, U. S. A.

Arkansas Gazette, June 27, 1838


Seminole Emigrants.-Between 60 and 70 Seminole Indians came up on the s.b. Itasca, from New-Orleans, on Saturday morning last, in charge of Lieut Reynolds, U. S. A. They are a part of Alligator's tribe, and that noted Chief, with his family, are of the party. Take them as a body, they are as likely a party of Indian emigrants as we have seen, and we understand they are perfectly healthy.

The Itasca, with the Indians, left on Sunday evening for the west.

Arkansas Gazette, July 25, 1838


More Indians.–The steam-boat Rodney is now in the river, with 300 or 400 Seminoles, from Florida, on board, destined for the west, and may be expected here to-day.

Arkansas Gazette, November 21, 1838


Seminole Indians.-The s.b. Rodney arrived here on Wednesday morning last, with upwards of 250 Seminole Indians, from Florida, in charge of Maj. Boyd, superintendent for their removal. In consequence of the low stage of the river, they were transferred to the s.b. North St. Louis, which left, on Friday, to convey them to their new homes west; but, we learn by a gentleman who came down on Monday, that he passed her aground below Cadron, some 50 miles above, and that the water is too low above for her to proceed much farther, until another rise. The Rodney returned down the river on Thursday.

Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1838



Emigrating Seminoles.–About 260 Seminoles arrived here yesterday, from New Orleans, on the s.b. Buckeye, under the charge of Capt. Morrison, of the U. S. Army, on their way to the country assigned them in the west. They are a portion of the band who have been bothering our troops in the hammocks of Florida, headed by the negro Abram, who is with the party. They are all fat and good humored, and look as if they had been living a life of indolent ease, instead of being hunted like wild beasts from fastness to fastness. A good portion of the party is composed of women and children. The Buckeye remains here with the Indians on board, waiting for water to convey them to Fort Gibson.

Arkansas Gazette, April 3, 1839


The Seminoles.–The steamer President arrived at our landing on Saturday last, having on board, in charge of Maj. Belknap, 3d infantry, accompanied by Lieut. Sprague, and Dr. Barnes, U.S.A., two hundred and twenty Seminole Indians. They are a part of the Talahassee band. Among them were sixty fierce looking warriors. As the boat left the landing the Indians gave a fair specimen of their skill in vocal music, by yelling most vociferously. We learned on board the President that upward of three hundred more of the same band are ready to embark for Arkansas. It does not afford us any pleasure to record the arrival of treacherous enemies on our border; neither is it a pleasing task to be continually, but justly, calling on the Government to send us a force adequate to the protection of the frontier; upon which she is concentrating an immense number of the sworn enemies of the white man. As to the promises of uncivilized Indians, they are made only to be broken. We have no faith in them. Of one thing they may be certain, should they attempt a warlike movement in their new home, that they have not the swamps and hammocks of Florida to hide in; and that the frontiersmen of Arkansas know every nook and hiding place so well, that the utter extermination of the Indians would follow any depredations committed by them on our citizens. We would prefer, however, that a force sufficiently large to awe them should be sent, which would deter the Indians from even attempting hostilities, and remove the alluring bait now shown to them on our unprotected frontier.

Arkansas Gazette, April 14, 1841


More Seminoles.–The steamer Little Rock, Capt. Stevenson, arrived on Thursday the 4th inst., and passed up, having on board 207 Seminole Indians, sixty of whom were warriors, the remainder women and children, destined for their future homes west of Arkansas. Among them
are the two most hostile chiefs, Wild Cat and Hospataka.

The officers in charge of the party are Capt. Seawell, and Lieut. Britton, of the 7th U.S. Infantry, and Ast. Surgeon Walker.

Arkansas Gazette, November 10, 1841



Seminoles Coming.–We learn by a gentleman from Jefferson county, that the s. b. Swan arrived at Barraque's bar, below Pine Bluffs, on Sunday morning last, from New-Orleans, with 116 Seminole Indians on board, on their way to their new homes up the Arkansas.

Arkansas Gazette, August 3, 1842


There has been a slight rise in the river, and the steamers Arkansas, and Lucy Walker have both passed up, the latter having on board upward of two hundred Seminole Indians, on their way to the west. We learned by her that the distinguished Chief Tiger Tail, died in New Orleans, while accompanying the band, of an affection of the lungs, it is said. We have seldom looked upon men of finer mould or muscular power than these sons of the forest seem to display.

Arkansas Gazette, March 15, 1843


Updated 12.17.2009