War Through Goya’s Gaze
Jana Miller Art History
Mentor(s): Floyd Martin
My research pertains to Francisco Goya’s series of etchings and engravings known as “The Disasters of War” created during the Peninsular War in the early years of 19th-century Spain. History painting has always shown beautiful images of epic battles and heroic figures, honorable deaths and triumphant wins. It was not until the 19th century when Francisco Goya created the series of etchings and engravings known as “The Disasters of War” that an artist represented war with all the truth and brutality that it possesses. His brutal honesty, not withholding, was a shocking display for so many viewers of the time. So much so, that the series was not entirely appreciated when finally published in 1863, 35 years after his death. I examine 11 of the 82 plates in my paper, then focus on the reactions and criticism that came after publication from art critics and collectors that were his contemporaries. With “The Disasters of War” series, he sparked discussion and shed light on the topic of war as it never had been before.
Experimental simulation and optimization of a small-scale solar updraft power plant.
Jeffrey Jones, Systems Engineering: Mechanical
Mentor(s): Shawn Bourdo
The world is currently searching for new ways to produce energy. Renewable energy technologies such as solar updraft towers (SUTs) are paramount to long-term sustainability. SUTs use solar irradiance to create an updraft through a tower to generate energy. Two small-scale SUTs were constructed — SUT-1 was a control tower from which much of the data has been collected, while SUT-2 had aluminum absorber plates placed inside to determine the influences on temperature and air velocity. Data from these towers (interior temperature and air velocity) were collected and analyzed based on the environmental operating conditions. Using equations from the literature, the energy absorbed, power converted, and overall energy conversion efficiency of the tower was determined. SUT-1 produced an average air velocity of 1.23±0.46 m/s, a calculated energy output of 526.8±10.8W, which resulted in a total system efficiency of 5.9±0.9%. This study achieved significant air velocity improvements from comparable small-scale SUT studies.
Funding: Arkansas Science and Technology Authority
Deployable Rooftop Cargo Management System
Amanda Axelson, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Bret Ward, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Ben Morin, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Silas Duke, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Mentor(s): Mamdouh Bakr
Consumers purchase vehicles based upon what suits their needs best, although many times that choice comes in the form of a compromise, and such is the case with an SUV. Cargo capacity is sacrificed in favor of passenger capacity and comfort. The cabin is spacious and accommodating for passengers, but there is little room for cargo, especially large items. The Rooftop Cargo Management System is a user-friendly convenient solution which addresses that problem. It is designed to allow for the transport of excess or unwieldy cargo by transporting it on the rooftop of the SUV. However, unlike any other rooftop carrier on the market, this system utilizes a fully automatic, self-deploying cargo platform which allows cargo to be loaded from ground level at the rear of the vehicle.
Medical Breath Analyzer
Cassidy McMahon, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Seth Hawkins, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Adrian Wethington, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Ali Al Faraj, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Tony Peterman, Computer Science
Mentor(s): Coskun Bayrak
Mamdouh Bakr, Mechanical Engineering Technology, Donaghey College of Engineering and Information Technology.
The Project is a breath-analyzing device capable of measuring both the ethanol on a person’s breath and determining their blood alcohol content and the acetone and determining their blood sugar.
Americanum Maleficarum: Witchcraft in th Eastern United States
Ryan Gleason, History
Mentor(s): Susanah Romney
This project tries to show how initial beliefs in witchcraft that were held by early European settlers shifted over time. This shift comes from an introduction of new cultures and people and with regional changes in people’s beliefs as they spread throughout the eastern United States. By examining primary documents found in The Journal of American Folklore, we can see the shift in beliefs both over time and regionally, and we can see that a deep-rooted belief and fear lasted long after the end of the Salem Witch Trials. Not only did it last, but it evolved alongside the growing nation and has remained a part of American folk beliefs even in today’s world.
Chasing The Plume: Environmental Impact of the Gold King Mine Spill
Maryevalyn Wren, Geology
Mentor(s): Laura Ruhl
René Shroat-Lewis, Assistant Professor, Department of Earth Sciences, College of Engineering and Information Technology
Lashun Thomas, Assistant Professor, Department of Construction Management & Civil and Construction Engineering, College of Engineering
Historic mines pose a threat to the water quality and environmental health of the surrounding and downstream areas. Metals and contaminants from abandoned mines and their adits, tailings, and waste rock piles serve as a constant influence on the water and sediment quality. During a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency investigation on August 5, 2015, millions of gallons of wastewater were released from the Gold King Mine into Cement Creek, a tributary of the Animas River. The contaminated wastewater flowed downstream into the San Juan River and continued into the Colorado River. These streams and rivers provide drinking water for the southwestern states and are also used for recreation and irrigation. The torrent of wastewater, which EPA reports contained arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, deposited fine orange sediment up to 50 miles downstream. We collected sediment samples from twelve locations along the banks of the San Juan River, Animas River, and Cement Creek one week after the spill. We subsequently performed sequential leaching experiments (Tessier et al., 1979) and the EPA’s Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (Method 1312). These leaching experiments will reveal how the sediment will behave in the environment after deposition, as well as the mobility of contaminants from the sediment. Leachate from these experiments has been analyzed for trace metals using ICPMS. The mineralogy of the sediment was determined with XRD. The results from this investigation will help determine long-term implications of the spill.
Identifying Conditions for Growth of Nanostructures on Graphene Decorated with Metal Nanoparticles
Andersen Lafont, Biology
Mentor(s): Shawn Bourdo
Carbon-based nanomaterials are widely studied due to impressive thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. It had been reported that carbon nanotubes can be grown on graphene decorated with metal nanoparticles using radio frequency (RF) heat treatment. Since a wide range of potential applications, from water filtration and hemodialysis to next-generation fuel cells exist, we investigated several factors to determine which may promote or inhibit growth of these unique materials: (1) size of nanoparticles used to decorate graphene, (2) concentration of nanoparticle, (3) type of graphene, (4) metal nanoparticle type (e.g. Au, Ag, Fe), and (5) intensity of RF treatment. Graphene was decorated by in situ and ex situ methods. Scanning electron microscope images were taken of each sample to identify differences in morphology, and electron dispersive spectroscopy spectra were taken to determine elemental composition. While growth was achieved by in situ reactions, no growth was observed in graphene decorated using printing techniques.
Funding: Arkansas Science and Technology Authority
Identification of Chemical Lead Series for the Inhibition of ERCC1/XPA Complex
Anna Lee Clark, Chemistry
Mentor(s): Darin Jones
ERCC1 is a protein implicated in cis-platin chemotherapy resistance. The XPA-recruited ERCC1-XPF complex initiates DNA repair pathways in response to lesion-induced distortions in DNA structure. Inhibition of the XPA interaction with ERCC1 has proven to be effective at disrupting the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The development of a novel small molecule which selectively inhibits this protein-protein interaction could attenuate chemotherapeutic resistance in tumor cells.
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a powerful screening tool in fragment-based drug discovery. The binding of low molecular weight compounds to immobilized protein targets is directly monitored providing an estimate of binding affinity. Using a SPR binding assay, the Maybridge Rule-of-Three fragment library of 2500 compounds was screened at ~1 mM. This resulted in the identification of 35 compounds that bind reversibly in a 1:1 complex with ERCC1. These fragment hits clearly belong to eight different chemotypes of ERCC1 inhibitors. Two chemotypes have been chosen for further development into ERCC1 inhibitors.
Novel Phosphorus and Nitrogen Co-Doped Carbons for Utilization in Supercapacitors
Zachary Hicks, Chemistry/Biology
Mentor(s): Tito Viswanathan
Traditional capacitors have long been used as a means of storing energy for electronic devices. Supercapacitors, otherwise known as ultracapacitors, are an emerging solution to efficiently store greater amounts of energy. Supercapacitors exhibit both the characteristics of batteries (high energy density) as well as capacitors (high power density). They are unique in that they utilize a porous carbon material and thinner dielectric in order to greatly increase their overall capacitance. Novel phosphorus- and nitrogen-doped carbon materials (PNDC) has been prepared in our lab by a microwave-assisted method. This material has been evaluated for its energy storage characteristics by measuring its surface area and capacitance values. The PNDC-containing materials have shown to out-perform non-doped carbons. Our PNDC material is important to green energy research, because it is made from the readily abundant, renewable resource of used coffee grounds. This represents an environmentally-friendly alternative for use in mass-energy storage devices.
Petrographic Examination of the Bennett Pegmatite, Oxford County, Maine
Kevin Gardner, Geology
Mentor(s): Michael T. DeAngelis
Pegmatite rocks from western Maine have been mined for gems since the mid 1800s. While the geology of some mines has been extensively studied, the Bennett Pegmatite Mine in Oxford County, Maine, has not had much detailed research. A sample of pegmatite was obtained from the Bennett Mine, and thin sections were prepared to perform petrographic analysis. Initial observations of thin sections reveal a primary mineral assemblage of larger apatite phenocrysts within a groundmass of albite, quartz, and muscovite. Secondary textures, such as minor alteration within some grains and reaction coronas around some grains, suggest a complex post-crystallization history. Additional observations with shortwave ultra-violet light have indicated the presence of several fluorescent minerals, with the most notable being the gold-orange fluorescence of green apatite crystals. This fluorescence suggests the presence of as-yet unidentified trace elements. Future electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is planned to determine detailed composition of this sample.
Funding: Arkansas Department of Higher Education
Using 3D mapping technology to interpret and define the landscape of the Al Baleed archaeological site.
Laura Fuentes, Anthropology
Mentor(s): Krista Lewis
A large portion of archeological work is interpreting the results of the data gathered during a field season. The research presented here will build upon maps made during the 2015 B field season at the UNESCO World Heritage Site Al Baleed in Salalah, Oman. By defining areas of occupation, use, and cultural interest that are visible in the new 3D model and aerial photos, this research can better define and add to the knowledge of the ancient port city of Al Baleed. While on site, I worked with the team to establish a grid that was used to collect high-resolution photos of the entire site. Special care was taken to record precise elevation and GPS coordinates for each photo which allowed for the creation of a 3D model of the site. Being able to research and explore the physical properties of a site after excavations are over is rare if not impossible in archaeology. The addition of an accurate, realistic recreation in the form of a 3D model or high-resolution photos which are accessible at a later time or date can be a valuable addition to archaeological research. Features such as spatial distribution, changes in topography, and variation in soil color may yield clues as to what lies beneath the sands of Salalah. Through a detailed study of existing architecture design, along with historic examples of Arabian building techniques and traditions provide insight into possible unexcavated structures in Al Baleed. With this new perspective, and building upon knowledge gained from documenting the excavation of similar mounds for potential structures, this work will add to the understanding of the sites layout, distribution, and identify areas of cultural significance or probable structures for future study.
Homeless Disparities Between Whites and Non-Whites
Jennifer Bean, Social Work
Matthew Hutson, Social Work
Mentor(s): Carolyn Turturro, School of Social Work, College of Professional Studies
Homelessness has become a serious issue in Arkansas. This study investigates disparities between Whites and Non-Whites who were interviewed during the 2016 Homeless Count. Undergraduate and graduate social work students were trained and conducted interviews with 175 people staying at homeless shelters in Central Arkansas. This study was approved by the IRB at UALR. Non-Whites reported a greater numbers of family members they could call on for help if needed, in comparison to Whites. Whites, however, reported a greater number of friends to call on for help and a greater number of good mental health day in the past month in comparison to Non-Whites. Non-Whites were more confident in being able to obtain their own housing in the next 6 months in comparison to Whites. The importance of social support for people who are homeless and related policy implications are discussed.
Eye Tracking Using Simple Techniques for Improved Speed
Connor Young, Computer Science
Mentor(s): Mariofanna Milanova
The purpose of this research was to implement a system for tracking the eye-gaze of a participant in a non-invasive form. Non-invasive eye tracking has been desired for use in a variety of applications relating to attention, however this results in a significant amount of extra calculations in order to achieve accurate results. Using basic thresholding and morphological functions, we were able to automatically approximate the center of the pupil, which is a key component in eye tracking. Further testing indicated that this was accurate to within 2 pixels for the location of the eye-center with a rate of approximately 29 frames per second on our test laptop. Our system currently requires a stable head to function, however a suitable and accurate reference point of the face should allow for detection of a free-moving head.
Social Media Acceptance and Usage by Business Communications Faculty
Kayla Sapkota, Higher Education
Mentor(s): Jim Vander Putten
Social media is an ubiquitous, technological phenomenon, permeating both personal and professional lives. Increasingly, business professionals apply social media on the job, yet business faculty members often omit it from their curricula. This qualitative study investigated business communications faculty members’ perceptions of social media in the classroom and business contexts, as well as how it is implemented in the classroom. Data were collected via personal interviews and course syllabi review. Interviews were transcribed and coded using an adaptation of the technology acceptance model. Overall, participants accepted social media as an increasingly important business tool but including it in the business curriculum was not unanimous. Summarily, a list of guidelines for addressing social media in the business communications classroom was created.
IRB: # 16-161
Teaching Elementary Students Wisdom Through Scaffolding in Collaborative Reasoning Groups
Nathalie Massanelli, Reading
Mentor(s): Linda Dorn
This qualitative, multiple-case study was conducted to analyze the use of teacher and student discourse that occurred during collaborative reasoning discussions as students examined the wisdom of character choices from characters in texts. Participants included two fourth-grade teachers and four collaborative reasoning discussion groups. Three research questions guided the research process: 1) How do teachers and students use language during collaborative reasoning groups to scaffold students to make wiser decisions? 2) How does the particular activity setting shape the development of wisdom? 3) How does students’ wisdom-related knowledge change over time? The activity setting and collaborative reasoning groups were examined to determine teacher and student scaffolding patterns. Wisdom dilemmas were also analyzed to examine how students’ wisdom knowledge evolved over time. Qualitative data analysis revealed eleven general teacher scaffolds, eleven student scaffolds, and eight wisdom teacher scaffolds that enabled students to discuss wisdom. Teaching style and the activity setting affected the amount and type of scaffolds teachers and students used. Quantitative data analysis revealed that students’ wisdom knowledge increased over time. Mean wisdom dilemma scores were higher after discussion with a partner. Students in dialogic discussions had more authentic and meaningful talk that included interactions with many turns. Students in less dialogic discussion groups used less authentic talk but stayed on task and had higher mean wisdom dilemma scores before discussion with a partner.
Project # 5
Thermal Decomposition Study and Thermodynamic Model of HTPB in the Presence of Energetic Material
Muntaha Yousef, Applied Science: Applied Chemistry
Mentor(s): Keith Hudson
Azo-Tetrazolate salts and their derivatives have identical negatively conjugated nitrogen rings and two varied positively charged cations. The varied cations are Guanidinium, Aminoguanidinium, Diaminoguanidinium, Triaminoguanidinium and Ammonium. Azo-Tetrazolate salts and their derivatives were synthesized and fully characterized by multinuclear spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).
The thermal behaviors and decomposition kinetics of Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate (GAT), Aminoguanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate (AGAT), Diaminoguanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate (DAGAT), and Ammonium Azo-Tetrazolate (AZT) were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetery (TGA) techniques. After applying DSC techniques, the energetic materials gave an exothermic peak in the DSC curve, not melting before they decompose. GAT decomposes at 260.0°C, AGAT decomposition occurs at 225.74 °C, DAGAT decomposes at 200.92°C and AZT has thermal degradation at 216.06°C. The results revealed using TGA analysis indicate that the main thermal degradation of GAT, AGAT, DAGAT and AZT were 253.34°C, 217.1°C, 194.08 °C and 212.7 °C respectively. The kinetic energies of these energetic materials were investigated non-isothermally by DSC under various heating rates (2, 5, 8) °C/min. Following to ASTM E 698, activation energy and pre-exponential factors for each material were obtained by the Kissinger corrected kinetic equation and the Ozawa–Flynn–Wall method. Finally, the thermodynamic parameters (∆G♯, ∆H♯, ∆S♯) were calculated corresponding to their activation energy.
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was performed to investigate the compatibility and the interaction between the energetic materials. The results present good compatibility between GAT-AGAT, GAT-DAGAT, and AGAT-DAGAT. There was fair compatibility between GAT-AZT and poor compatibility between DAGAT –AZT and AGAT-AZT. The decomposition of AGAT and DAGAT was delayed by adding GAT. The mixture of DAGAT- AZT and AGAT-AZT might be hazardous. Adding any other energetic material to GAT accelerates the decomposition temperature of GAT, which may be useful in some applications.
Funding: Arkansas Space Grant Consortium
Photochromic Thermochromic Nanocomposite
Syed Akailvi, Systems Engineering
Mentor(s): Alexandru Biris
We have proposed a new nanocomposite consisting of F-127 polymer, AuNR, and thermochromic dyes which change color when they are heated above a tunable transition temperature. This nanocomposite has been demonstrated to show rapid, reversible and easily detectable color change at the timescales of ~60ms without degradation of any of its constituents which makes it a good candidate for in-vitro and in-vivo studies of thermal ablation treatment for cancer. This nanocomposite makes it possible to overcome one of the major shortcomings of photothermal therapy (PTT) and plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) by allowing the detection of heating occurring during PPTT to reduce the risk of unintentional thermal damage to healthy tissues alongside cancer cells.
Virtual Airway Skills Trainer (VAST) Simulator
Doga Demirel, Integrated Computing
Alexander Yu, Computer Science, University of Central Arkansas,
Adam Ryason, Mechanical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
David Spindler, Human Factors Engineering, Wright State,
Mentor(s): Coskun Bayrak
Tansel Halic, Computer Science, University of Central Arkansas
Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselear Polytechnic Institute
Kathryn L. Butler, M.D., Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Caroline Cao, Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University
Emil Petrusa, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Marcos Molina, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard School of Medicine
Dan Jones, M.D, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard School of Medicine
Stephanie Jones, M.D., Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard School of Medicine
Suvranu De, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselear Polytechnic Institute
Marc Demoya, M.D., Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) is performed to describe major tasks and subtasks for CCT. A rubric for performance scoring for each task was derived and possible operative errors were identified. We will also present a simulation of Virtual Airway Skill Trainer (VAST) tasks. The simulated tasks are a part of two main airway management techniques: Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) and Cricothyroidotomy (CCT). ETI is a simple nonsurgical airway management technique, while CCT is the extreme surgical alternative to secure the airway of a patient. We developed identification of Mallampati class, finding the optimal angle for positioning pharyngeal/mouth axes tasks for ETI and identification of anatomical landmarks and incision tasks for CCT.
Data Profiling Technology of Data Governance Regarding Big Data: Review and Rethinking
Wei Dai, Information Quality
Mentor(s): Kenji Yoshigoe
Data profiling technology is very valuable for data governance and data quality control because people need it to verify and review the quality of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. In this paper, we first review relevant works and discuss their definitions of data profiling. Second, we offer a new definition and propose new classifications for data profiling tasks. Third, the paper presents several free and commercial profiling tools. Fourth, we offer a new data quality metrics and data quality score calculation. Finally, we discuss a data profiling tool framework for big data.
Amplitude Modulation Detection With and Without Concurrent Frequency Modulation
Tia McDonald, Audiology
Mentor(s): Naveen Nagaraj
Amplitude modulation (AM) is the change in amplitude of signal over a certain period of time. Frequency modulation (FM) is the change in frequency of signal over time; both are critical aspects of speech. The envelope of the carrier frequency (CF) represents the shape of the sound wave or range of slow amplitude fluctuation of the CF. As it relates to human speech the AM envelope is the movement of the articulators when we speak. FM relates to the fine structures of the CF, which represents the frequency fluctuation if CF. This translates to speech through formant transitions, changes in pitch, or speech production via the vibratory pattern of an individual’s vocal folds. Complex signals such as Human speech are rich in dynamic AM and FM cues. The perception of speech is done through continuous encoding of complex AM and FM signals in our auditory system. Several studies have pointed out that AM cues are sufficient for understanding speech in quiet (Drullman et al., 1994; Shannon et al., 1995), FM cues play a significant role in encoding speech in noise (Zeng et al., 2005). However it is not clear if FM helps in detection of an AM signal. Hence the aim of this study is to measure the participants’ threshold for the detection of AM signal with and without FM cues to better understand the role of FM cues in detecting AM.
Mixed Model Testing, Association of Age at Menarche with Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiomes of Women in UK
Yan Wang, Bioinformatics
Mentor(s): Barbara Fuhrman
Early menarche is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. We have hypothesized that this association results from a shared cause; alterations in the gut microbiome. We examined this hypothesis in a study of 908 female adult twins (542 dizygotic and 366 monozygotic) drawn from the TwinsUK registry. Age at menarche was self-reported. Microbial 16S-rRNA amplicons were sequenced from fecal samples. Demultiplexed RNA sequences were downloaded from EBI. We carried out quality filtering and open-resource OTU picking using QIIME. Alpha diversity was measured in samples rarefied to a sequencing depth of 8,136. Mixed model regression was used to model the association of menarche with fecal microbial measures while adjusting for covariance in twinned measures and for the effects of potential confounders, including birth cohort and BMI. Compared to others, women in the first and last quintiles for age at menarche had reduced alpha diversity. Age at menarche and alpha diversity of the fecal microbiome each accounted for some variations in CVD risk factors. The mechanisms underlying the observed associations remain to be elucidated.
Funding: Arkansas INBRE
Street Art: For Your Consideration
Alecia Walls-Barton, Art
Mentor(s): Floyd Martin
In my research I’m looking to define and highlight the genre of “street art.” There are many questions to answer: Who makes it and why? Who sees it and in what context? Who owns it or profits from its making. My interest lies in the way these works are presented and observed and how they may or may not relate to the art establishment.
SAD-GLAD Pt-Ni @Ni nanorods as Highly Active Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalysts
Mahbuba Begum, Applied Science: Applied Chemistry
Mentor(s): Tansel Karabacak
Brian C Berry, Applied Science Program Director, Associate Professor, Director of Applied Science, College of Arts, Letter and Sciences
Vertically-aligned platinum-nickel at nickel nanorods catalysts with different compositions of Pt-Ni were prepared by magnetron sputtering, combining a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique for the fabrication of Ni nanorods (NRs) and a small angle deposition (SAD) technique for the growth of a thin conformal coating of Pt-Ni on the Ni-NRs (designated as Pt-Ni@Ni-NR). The Pt-Ni@Ni-NR structures were supported on glassy carbon for evaluation of their oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in aqueous acidic electrolyte using the rotating disk electrode technique. These Pt-Ni@Ni-NR catalysts showed superior area-specific and mass activities for ORR compared to PtNi alloy nanorod catalysts prepared using the GLAD technique and compared to conventional high surface area Pt and PtNi alloy nanoparticle catalysts.
Funding: National Science Foundation
The Nature of Rare Earth Elements in Weathered Coal Combustion Products
Brendon Tucker, Applied Science
Mentor(s): Laura Ruhl
Much research has been directed at the Rare Earth Element (REE) content of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs). CCPs are the solid waste produced by coal combustion, representing a heterogeneous mixture of particles that are generally grouped into the categories fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization material. CCPs have attracted industrial attention due to their REE content and economically viable REE-ratios. Previous research has noted the speed at which CCPs weather, in some instances clay-like particles developed in under a decade. Certain clays, particularly ion-adsorption clays, are known to bind REEs in their mineral structure during the weathering process. Sequential leaching experiments per the Tessier et al. 1979 method were performed to determine the chemical association of the REE content. The samples of CCPs are from the Emory River, in the region of Tennessee Valley Authority coal ash spill of 2008. These were chosen as they represent samples that were weathered both through artificial means in a coal ash holding pond and then naturally weathered in the Emory River. The leachate of each step has been analyzed through ICPMS to determine the REE content in each fraction of the coal ash material (exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron and manganese oxides, bound to organic matter and residual). Morphological changes were also inspected with Scanning Electron Microscopy (with backscattered electron imaging) at each step of the sequential leaching process.
Stacked Core-Shell Nanorod Array Electrocatalyst by a HIPS-GLAD method for Enhanced ORR in PEMFCs
Fatma Yurtsever, Applied Science: Applied Chemistry
Mahbuba Begum, Applied Science: Applied Chemistry
Mesut Yurukcu, Applied Science: Applied Physics
Mentor(s): Tansel Karabacak
Low Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (LT-PEMFC) are one of the most promising renewable energy devices in twenty-first century. It has many advantages in terms of zero carbon emission, quiet operation mode, high power density, higher efficiency than Carnot engines, and in addition it requires less warm up & has a fast startup time. However in order to make PEMFCs more practical, further development in catalyst is needed in order to decrease the cost, enhance stability, and improve sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics. In this study, we developed new design of stacked core-shell nanorod array electrocatalyst to improve ORR kinetics and catalyst stability. For this purpose, we fabricated a two-layer nanorod structure, where each layer is composed of a tungsten carbide (WC) core and a platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) alloy shell. WC nanorods were fabricated by a glancing angle deposition (GLAD). A conformal Pt-Ni alloy was coated around the WC nanorods by a new high pressure sputtering (HIPS) method. This process was repeated two times in order to obtain longer stacked core-shell nanorods. We investigated three different Pt:Ni ratios. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) methods were used for electrochemical characterizations. 0.1 M HClO4 was chosen as the electrolyte solution. Morphological and crystallographic analysis were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Pt mass loading values were measured using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). We report that electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) values for different Pt:Ni compositions change in the order of 1:3>1:1>3:1. Specific activity (SA) and mass activity (MA) were observed to be higher for Ni-rich compositions, which are further enhanced after accelerated stability tests.
Integration of a Spectral Viewer for Data Stored in an Open Source Electronic Laboratory Notebook
Andrew Cornell, Chemistry
Mentor(s): Robert Belford
Open Source Electronic Laboratory Notebooks (ELNs) have been around for several years and many of these are now specialized for a particular branch of science. Chemistry-based ELNs are often challenged with an additional need to store various types of data files and the associated metadata specific to a type of lab instrument. These formats often contain spectral information, resulting in the further need to have graphical based viewing within the ELN. Traditionally, this would be performed by uploading the spectrum in the form of exported images and screenshots which is only a static graphical representation of the raw data. The purpose of this project is to embed a browser based spectral viewer into the ELN that will read the raw data values and output a form that allows for user interaction while preserving the original data.
Superconvergence of a Modified Weak Galerkin Approximation
Betul Bogrek, Applied Science: Computational Sciences
Mentor(s): Xiu Ye
In this study, the general superconvergence result of a modified weak Galerkin finite element approximation for the second order elliptic problem by using L^2 projection method is introduced. The modified weak Galerkin finite element method is based on the novel weak Galerkin finite element method that was proposed and analyzed by Wang and Ye . The weak Galerkin finite element method uses the appropriately defined weak functions and the discrete weak gradients. The modified weak Galerkin method reduces the number of unknowns by modifying weak functions from the weak Galerkin finite element method. The superconvergence analysis for the finite element method by the L^2 projections were initialized and analyzed by Wang , which constructs a new approximation that is closer to the exact solution than the other existing solutions by L^2 projections technique.
The Relationship Between Low Self-control, Risky Lifestyles, and Victimization: An Analysis of South Korean Youth
Rocio Roles, Criminal Justice
Hyounggon Kwak, Criminal Justice
Mentor(s): Tusty ten Bensel
Although a great deal research has been conducted on risk of victimization, most studies have focused on situational frameworks, often overlooking the influence of individual traits. Relying on the “Study on Child Delinquency” which was conducted by the Korean Institute of Criminology (KIC) in 2009, the purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between low self-control, risky behaviors, and victimization. Specifically, this study explores whether risky lifestyles have a mediating effect on low self-control and crime victimization. By providing a better understanding of the individual and situational settings associated with victimization, it is intended that findings of this study will provide useful implications for policy and practice.
Maternal Incarceration Penalty: An Examination of the Effect of Maternal Conviction and Incarceration on Childhood Delinquency
Kristen Sobba, Criminal Justice
Brenda Branham, Criminal Justice
Mentor(s): Emily Berthelot
Research suggests that incarceration has adverse consequences, not only for individuals, but also for the development of their children. While literature addresses the influence of parental incarceration on juveniles’ delinquent tendencies, less is known about differences in behavioral outcomes for children whose mothers were incarcerated compared to those who were convicted but not incarcerated. This study examines variation in delinquent outcomes of children whose mothers were convicted and incarcerated, convicted but not incarcerated, and never convicted. Specifically, we address how childhood personality traits, maternal conviction/incarceration, and demographic characteristics influence delinquency using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.
1st Place Tie
Identity Crisis: An Analysis of Conflict Management Among Prison Inmates Using Face Negotiation Theory
Erin Pavioni, Criminal Justice
Mentor(s): James Golden
Prisons should be seen as places of challenging situations caused by the anxiety and fear of violence during incarceration. Through the negotiation of preserving one’s public self-image, defined as “facework”, inmates maintain and adapt this self-image during each encounter they have. A sample of inmates were interviewed concerning their use of ethical or unethical behavior by creating several fake scenarios in which the inmate would face a moral dilemma with another inmate. During the interviews, inmates were questioned on the extent they would verbally communicate facework by employing an avoiding, obliging, compromising, dominating, or integrating style of managing conflict. It was found that inmates preferred to keep to themselves by disengaging from conflict through avoidance. This research confirmed that inmate behavior is determined by situational factors. It focused on the importance of correspondence between individualistic and collectivistic needs in the promotion of adjusting to being institutionally confined.
1st Place Tie
The Relationships Between Clergy, the Big 5 Personality Factors, Job Satisfaction, and Burnout
Heather Pullam, Applied Psychology
Aaron D. Fletcher, Applied Psychology
Mentor(s): John Faucett
Dr. Ben Kowal, Visiting Professor, Psychology
Dr. Bruce Moore, Professor/Faculty, Psychology
The present research examined the relationship of the big 5 personality factors to clergy job satisfaction and burnout. The web survey data were collected from 125 clergy serving within a conference of the United Methodist Church. Job satisfaction was measured via the Satisfaction in Ministry Scale. Burnout was measured via the Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry scale. Personality was measured via the Mini-IPIP. The present results suggest that clergy affect at work might, to some extent, reflect personality differences.