Dr. Benjamin H. Rainwater


Dr. Benjamin H. Rainwater

Adjunct Professor, Systems Engineering

University of Arkansas at Little Rock
Phone: (501)837-7745
Email: bhrainwater@ualr.edu
Web Site URL: http://www.brownengineers.net/team-members/ben-rainwater-phd/


  • Ph.D., Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Tech
  • M.S., Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Tech
  • B.S., Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville

SYEN 3372 Materials Engineering:  An introduction to atomic structure and bonding, crystal structures, crystal geometry, solidification, crystalline imperfections, diffusion in solids, mechanical properties of metals, polymeric materials, phase diagrams, engineering alloys, ceramics, composite materials, and electrical properties of materials.

Research Interests

  •    Materials and Material Systems
  •    Ceramics
  •    Solid State Ionic Conductors
  •    Electrical Properties of Materials
  •    Renewable Energy Materials
  •    Technology to Market Assessment
  •    Market Viability of Materials Technologies

Awards and Honors

  • National School on X-ray and Neutron Scattering – Argonne National Lab, Oak Ridge National Lab (2014)
  • Georgia Tech Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology Cleanroom Seed Grant Recipient (2014)
  • National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (2011-2014)
  • ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Student Program (2014)
  • President’s Fellowship – Georgia Institute of Technology (2010)
  • Italian Machine Tool Technology Award (2010)
  • Arkansas Academy of Mechanical Engineers Scholar (2007, 2008)


  1. Ben Harris Rainwater, Mingfei Liu, Meilin Liu. “A more efficient anode microstructure for SOFCs based on proton conductors.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2012; 37(23): 18342-18348. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.09.027
  1. Ben Harris Rainwater, Nenad Velisavljevic, Changyong Park, Haibin Sun, Gordon H. Waller, Georgiy M. Tsoi, Yogesh K. Vohra, Meilin Liu. “High pressure structural study of Samarium doped CeO2 oxygen vacancy conductor – Insight into the dopant concentration relationship to the strain effect in thin film ionic conductors.” Solid State Ionics. Submitted January 2016.
  2. Sun, H., Ben Harris Rainwater, Waller, G., Liu, ML. “Interfacial effects on transport properties in nanocrystalline Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 solid state ionic conductor.” In preparation (Expected submission March. 2016)
  3. Ben Harris Rainwater, Ding, J., Zhang, L., Waller, G., Rouleau, C., More, K., Ding, Y., Liu, M. “Dramatic enhancement of ionic conductivity at the Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 and BaZr0.85Y0.15O3-δ interface useful for efficient, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes.” In preparation (Expected submission Mar. 2016)
  4. Waller, Gordon Henry, Samson Yuxiu Lai, Ben Harris Rainwater, and Meilin Liu. “Hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn2O4 onto carbon fiber paper current collector for binder free lithium-ion battery positive electrodes.” Journal of Power Sources 251 (2014): 411-416. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.11.081
  1. GH Waller, PD Brooke, Ben Harris Rainwater, SY Lai, R Hu, Y Ding, FM Alamgir, KH Sandhage, ML Liu. “Structure and surface chemistry of Al2O3 coated LiMn2O4 nanostructured electrodes with improved lifetime.” Journal of Power Sources 306 (2016): 162-170. doi: doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.11.114
  1. Renzong Hu, Dongchang Chen, Gordon Waller, Yunpeng Ouyang, Yu Chen, Bote Zhao, Ben Harris Rainwater, Chenghao Yang, Min Zhu, Meilin Liu. “Dramatically enhanced reversibility of Li2O in SnO2-based electrodes: the effect of nanostructure on high initial reversible capacity.” Energy and Environmental Science (2016). Doi: 10.1039/C5EE03367E
  1. Xunhui Xiong, Gordon Waller, Dong Ding, Dongchang Chen, Ben Harris Rainwater, Bote Zhao, Zhixing Wang, Meilin Liu. “Controlled synthesis of NiCo2S4 nanostructured arrays on carbon fiber paper for high-performance pseudocapacitors.” Nano Energy 16 (2015) : 71-80. doi: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.06.018


  1. Ben Harris Rainwater, Yu Chen, Brian Doyle, Haibin Sun, Franklin Tao, Yunfei Bu, Tao Wei, Meilin Liu. “A Novel Methane-Fueled Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell”. Poster presentation at the Department of Energy ARPA-E Energy Summit (2015) Washington D.C.
  1. Ben Harris Rainwater, Yu Chen, Haibin Sun, Franklin Tao, Tao Wei, Ryan Murphy, Lei Zhang, Brain Doyle, Meilin Liu. “A Novel Methane-Fueled Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell”. Poster presentation at the NETL 16th Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Workshop (July 2015) Pittsburg, PA.
  1. Ben Harris Rainwater, Gordon Waller, Jung-Pil Lee, Meilin Liu. ‘Electrospinning of “Welded” Carbon Fiber Paper for Lithium Ion Battery Current Collectors.’ Poster presentation at the 225th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (2014) Orlando, FL.

National Laboratory Research Experience

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN – March 2015 – December 2015
        Center for Nanophase Materials Science – Pulsed Laser Deposition Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL – June 2015 – November 2015
        Advanced Photon Source – High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

Research Technique Experience
X-ray diffraction; synchrotron X-ray diffraction; SEM; high pressure diamond anvil cell measurements; pulsed laser deposition; RF/DC sputtering; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; ceramics processing; electrical testing; fuel cell fabrication