Authors: Austin Bow, Steven Newby, Rebecca Rifkin, Bailey K. Jackson, Alicia Matavosian, Christopher Griffin, William King, Karrer Alghazali, Anwer Mhannawee, Stuart B. Berryhill, Roy Morello, Silke Hecht, Alexandru S. Biris, David E. Anderson, Shawn E. Bourdo, Madhu Dhar
Publication: ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2019, 2, 5, 1815-1829
The complex dynamic nature of bone tissue presents a unique challenge for developing optimal biomaterials within the field of bone tissue engineering. Materials based on biological and physiological characteristics of natural bone have shown promise for inducing and promoting effective bone repair. Design of multicomposite scaffolds that incorporate both malleable and hard mineral components allows for intricate structures with nano- and macrosized mineral components to provide architectural elements that promote osteogenesis. The examined S-1 and S-2 scaffolds are multilayered constructs which differ only in the compositional ratio of nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) and decellularized bone particles (DBPs). The constructs incorporated previously studied nHA/polyurethane films interspersed with macrosized bone DBPs to stimulate integration with native tissue and induce osteogenic activity. In vitro assessment of cytocompatibility and osteostimulatory characteristics indicated that the scaffolds did not negatively impact cell health and demonstrated osteogenic effects. When the constructs were implanted in vivo, in a rat tibial defect model, the biocompatibility and osteogenic impact were confirmed. Material-treated defects were observed to not induce negative tissue reactions and, in those treated with S-1 scaffolds, exhibited greater levels of new bone formation. These results indicate that, while both scaffold designs were biocompatible, S-1 constructs demonstrate more effective biologically relevant nano-/macromineral architectural elements.