Authors: Gailan A. Al-Dainy, Fumiya Watanabe, Ganesh K. Kannarpady, Anindya Ghosh, Brian Berry, Alexandru S. Biris, Shawn E. Bourdo
Publication: ACS Omega 2020, Publication Date: January 21, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b03451
Abstract: A conducting polymer of lignosulfonic acid-grafted, polyaniline-doped camphorsulfonic acid (LS-PANI-CSA), created via a low-temperature solution process, has been explored as an efficient hole-transport layer (HTL) for inverted single cation–anion CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The performance of the solar cell was optimized in this study by tuning the morphology and work function of LS-PANI-CSA films using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent in treatment. Results showed that DMSO washing enhanced the electronic properties of the LS-PANI-CSA film and increased its hydrophobicity, which is very important for perovskite growth. The perovskite active layer deposited onto the DMSO-treated LS-PANI-CSA layer had higher crystallinity with large grain sizes (>5 μm), more uniform and complete surface coverage, and very low pinhole density and PbI2 residues compared to untreated LS-PANI-CSA. These enhancements result in higher device performance and stability. Using DMSO-treated LS-PANI-CSA as an HTL at 15 nm of thickness, a maximum 10.8% power conversion efficiency was obtained in ITO/LS-PANI-CSA/MAPbI3/PCBM/BCP/Ag inverted-device configurations. This was a significant improvement compared to 5.18% for devices based on untreated LS-PANI-CSA and a slight improvement over PEDOT:PSS-based devices with 9.48%. Furthermore, the perovskite based on treated LS-PANI-CSA showed the higher stability compared to both untreated LS-PANI-CSA and PEDOT:PSS HTL-based devices.