Authors: Austin Bow, Bailey Jackson, Christopher Griffin, Sara Howard, Hector Castro, Shawn Campagna, Alexandru S. Biris, David E. Anderson, Shawn Bourdo, Madhu Dhar
Publication: BioResearch Open Access, Volume 9, Issue 1, 2020
Abstract: Effective graft technologies for bone repair have been a primary focus in the field of bone tissue engineering. We have previously fabricated and examined a nanocomposite composed of polyurethane, nano-hydroxyapatite, and decellularized bone particles, which demonstrated osteobiologic characteristics. To evaluate the underlying mechanisms of this biomaterial, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell seeded scaffolds were assessed using a combinatorial approach of transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Data from osteogenic and signal transduction polymerase chain reaction arrays and small molecule abundances, measured through liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, were cross-examined using Integrated Molecular Pathway Level Analysis, Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery, and ConsensusPathDB online tools to generate a fundamental collection of scaffold-influenced pathways. Results demonstrated upregulation of key osteogenic, cellular adhesion cell signaling markers and indicated that Hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways were primary candidates for the osteobiologic mechanisms of the scaffold design. The detection of complimentary metabolites, such as ascorbate, further indicates that scaffolds generate intricate cellular environments, promoting cell attachment and subsequent osteodifferentiation.